In the beginning of the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution caused a massive economic spike from small-scale production to large factories and mass production. Capitalism became the prevalent mode of the economy, which put all means of production in the hands of the bourgeoisie, or the upper class. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels argue that capitalism centralizes all the wealth and power in the bourgeoisie, despite the proletariat, or the working class, being the overwhelming majority of the population. The manufacturers would exploit the common proletariat and force them to would work in abysmal conditions and receive low wages, furthering the working class poverty. “The Communist Manifesto” predicts that as a result of the mistreatment …show more content…
Marx and Engels utilize three rhetorical strategies, pathos, ethos, and logos, to better explain and inform the goals of communism to the world to dispel false ideas of the political theory, and to persuade the modern proletariat to revolutionize against …show more content…
Marx and Engels then follow with a series of rhetorical questions: “Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as communistic by its opponents in power? Where is the opposition that has not been hurled back from the branding reproach of communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries (1)?” Combined with the notion that holding power leads to corruption and immorality, the questions asked presents the reader with the impression that the communist party is being purposefully targeted by influential authorities. Marx and Engels further appeal to the emotions of their readers by adding that “The bourgeoisie, wherever it has got the upper hand, has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It has… left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest, than callous “cash payment”(4).” Evidently, the writers intend to shock and enrage their audience into action. The second rhetoric strategy Marx and Engels employ is ethos, the credibility and trustworthiness of the
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Ha Jin’s short story “Saboteur” is about a newly married man Chiu Maguang and his unjustified arrest. It ends with Chiu trying to take revenge on the police by trying to infect them with acute hepatitis, but he infects many citizens of the city. The setting of the story is a city in China after Mao’s Cultural Revolution, and the setting plays a key reason for the events that unfold throughout the story. When Marxist critic, Milkhail Bakhtin ideas are applied to “Saboteur”, the idea that the story is dialogic will become logical to the reader.
Through his writing, Engel hopes to promote the determination of unions, like that of the Knights of Labor, to bring a new about a new society where everyone is equal and no one can “hoard millions” and no one is classified as “tramps and beggars.” This man after the Haymarket Square Riot is trying to convince his audience that Socialism is the right path, a way to spread the riches that have been acquired during this revolution and benefitted the lives of the workers and not just of the millionaires. Unfortunately, this was not
Foundations of Sociology (SOC10010) Mid-Term Essay: Question: ‘’Discuss three main ideas from the Communist Manifesto.’’ Answer: In this essay I have been asked to discuss three main ideas from the ‘’Communist Manifesto’’, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. To do this I will summarise three main ideas from the text and critically analyse them.
Wealthy elites or the bourgeoisie continued to earn high profits while the poor proletarians continued to take part in labor intensive work in factories. Marx and Smiles both saw this as a major problem in their society. In Marx’s Communist Manifesto, he wrote, “ not only are they [the proletarians] slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois state; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the overlooker, and above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself…” What Marx means is that the bourgeoisie is looking down at the proletariats and using them as merely a way to earn profit. In contrast to Marx, Smiles said, “...they [the proletarians] resemble the savage tribes, who know no better, and do no worse.”
The Industrial Revolution cast its shadow upon European cities and towns. Some enjoyed this shade while others suffered tremendously because of it. Those who enjoyed the luxuries and wealth that the Industrial Revolution provided, the bourgeoisie, depended on the needs of the poor, the proletarians, to increase the size of their monstrous factories and ultimately their wealth and influence. In “The Communist Manifesto” Karl Marx discusses the effects of the Industrial Revolution in further dividing society by creating new social and economic hierarchies. In addition to his observation of the division of labor, Karl Marx believed, that due to the technological shift from craftsmanship to machinery this also caused division of labor and the appreciation of proletarian handmade goods was disregarded.
Marx and Engels look at capitalism with seriously negative opinions. They regard the system as extremely unsuitable, and are deeply concerned with getting rid of it. In a capitalist society, capitalists own and control the main resources of production - machinery, factories, mines, capital, etc. The modern working classes, or proletariats, own only their labor. Proletariats work for the capitalists, who own the product that was produced and then sell it for a profit.
According to Indergraard (2007), industrialization is “the process by which an economy shifts from an agricultural to a manufacturing base during a period of sustained change and growth, eventually creating a higher standard of living”. Within sociology, the three founding fathers, particularly Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim, were interested in studying what the causes of industrialization and the consequences of it on the development of society. This essay will compare the ways in which Marx and Durkheim shared similar ideas about industrialisation within society as well as contrast the aspects of their theories which have different ideological roots and conclusions. The essay with then go on to conclude that whilst there were some key differences
Third, Marx demonstrated that, as productive powers of a human society – its ‘productive forces’ - inevitably keep growing, they necessarily come into conflict with the prevalent way of organizing social production and reproduction, which he called ‘the social relations of production’. Fourth, he made the point that as productive forces developed, there would emerge a surplus of production over and above the needs of social reproduction, which would then enable a section of society to live off the labor of the rest of society. In other words, the emergence of a surplus would make logically possible the coming into being of class society, based on a division of society between the majority who work – the exploited - and a minority who live off the labor of the majority – the exploiters. Such a class division would of course be possible only on the basis of the minority of exploiters being in control of social production, primarily through their monopoly of ownership of
Rhetorical Analysis of Communism: A History By Richard Pipes Communism was originally a social theory of a completely unified and harmonious society (3). Private property and class inequality was said to be the root of all evil, so by removing those from society, a government could encourage peace on a national, and later a global scale. Richard Pipes examines the roots of Communism in his book, Communism: A History, and then proceeds to methodically express the failure and decay that comes with it. Pipes argues that Communism is corrupt by appealing to his scholarly audience through a cause-and-effect logos appeal, an ethos appeal that plays on the audience’s appreciation of professionalism, and a pathos appeal built on a foundation of statistical deaths.
Andre Abi Haidar PSPA 210 INTRODUCTION It is always difficult to write about and discuss Karl Marx, or more importantly the applications of Marx’s theories, due to the fact that he inspired and gave rise to many movements and revolutionaries, not all of which follow his theories to the point. Although Marx tends to be equated with Communism, it might not seem righteous to blame him for whatever shortcomings occurred when his theories were put to the test; Marx passed away well before the revolution in Russia, and he played no role in the emergence of the totalitarian regime at the time. When discussing Marx, however, Vladimir Lenin is one of the biggest highlights when it comes to studying the outcomes of Marx’s theories.
The three main ideas from the Communist Manifesto The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, had little to no influence when it was first published in 1848 for the Communist League. However, soon after Marx and Engel’s other writings on socialism became published it grew in popularity, and was considered a standard text of the time (Brians, 2006). With Marx’s radical ideas, and Engels’ thorough writing, they were able to convey how they were individual of the other socialists of the time and elaborate on their idea socialism and how it would inevitably be achieved. The three main ideas from The Communist Manifesto are class conflict, ephemeral capitalism, and inevitable revolution.
Communist Manifesto The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. When it was published in 1848 it had little influence, but later became one of the most read documents in the world. It is within the Manifesto that we can see the ideas that shaped history. These ideas were new and different.
Question 1. What do you make of Karl Marx’s contributions to sociology? Answer: It would take volumes to describe how important Karl Marx’s work is in sociology. His work is important in the 21st century because his concepts and ideas are the only genuine seeds for a better society.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) considered himself not to be a sociologist but a political activist. However, many would disagree and in the view of Hughes (1986), he was ‘both – and a philosopher, historian, economist, and a political scientist as well.’ Much of the work of Marx was political and economic but his main focus was on class conflict and how this led to the rise of capitalism. While nowadays, when people hear the word “communism”, they think of the dictatorial rule of Stalin and the horrific stories of life in a communist state such as the Soviet Union, it is important not to accuse Marx of the deeds carried out in his name.
In the Communist manifesto, a well known quote of Marx, “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.” This is introductory to the first part of the pamphlet and a conclusion to Marx’s theory about class struggle. Marx’s highly structured on how the class struggle emerges and affects the development of a society. The development of a society from the old and from the new is the result of the conflict of classes in the society.