The type of violence that is most common in prison is/are rape and gang violence. Unfortunately, inmates are not the only suspects, prison staff sometimes harass or rape the inmates. The inmates who are the victims of staff violence sometimes do not report that they have been violated or assaulted because they feel like no one will believe or listen to them. Deaths in prison are also a huge problem, according to Bureau of Justice A total of 4,446 inmates died in 2013, an increase of 131 deaths from 2012. This was the highest number of deaths reported to the BJS Deaths in Custody Reporting Program since 2007 (www.ncjrs.gov).
It is not only the prisoners that are mistreated but the officers as well. Being a correctional officer or art of the staff at a prison does not pay enough considering the risks taken. Some correctional officers have faced mental health issues because of the constant stress that one is under. Oscar Lopez, from Newsweek, has said that former corrections officer Brian Dawe has said in an interview: "You are in a constant state of fight or flight.” Dawe has also said: "We are so understaffed and so overcrowded across our prisons, it's miraculous that we can handle it.”
It elaborates further on the concept of “jail diversion” explaining a program in Bexar County Texas that is having success in doing just that as well as helping mentally ill lead better more successful lives. The author states that there is a high percentage of homeless mentally ill in jails and too much is expected of law enforcement and the criminal justice system in regards to mental health care. This is corroborated in the readings of Slate et al. (2013) as police officers are described as “street corner psychiatrists” and “providers of “psychiatric first aid”. The author also describes the growing pressures on emergency rooms to treat mentally ill who are over twice as likely to be admitted to the hospital than those with other
Although a recent survey found more than half of all inmates had some form of mental illness (4), they had developed that mental illness before incarceration. On the other hand, I did find a bit of information regarding the effects of overcrowding on mentally ill inmates. Because many overcrowded prisons are understaffed in medical personal, inmates who are mentally ill often go untreated. Scholars and mental health practitioners have suggested that the combination of adverse prison conditions and the lack of adequate and effective treatment resources may result in some prisoners with preexisting mental health conditions suffering an exacerbation of symptoms (4). Nonetheless, overcrowding is a direct violation of inmates’ Eighth Amendment rights; prohibition of cruel and unusual
There are two types of sexual victimization in prisons – inmate on inmate, and staff on inmate. A major problem of staff on inmate sexual victimization arises in female prisons. A startling “3 of 42 women (7%) were either groped or fondled in one Nebraska prison” (Gideon, 2013). That is only in one prison alone so moving forward, some individual risk factors of sexual coercion can be social needs, impressing of peers, building reputation, and avoiding exploitation. To sum up all the sexual victimization, especially with gay and lesbian inmates, happening in prisons – a majority of studies finds that homosexual, bisexual, transsexual, and transgendered inmates are at the highest risk for sexual assaults (Gideon,
As mentioned before, the majority of juveniles who are admitted to adult prison tend to develop aggressive habits and become suicidal because of the environment they’re in. There is no way that a person can get better when his or her surroundings are unsafe and where they don’t get the attention they need to get better. Chances are that juvenile will probably get worse. Rehabilitation needs to be in a safe place like a juvenile detention
These are not the kind of people that should be prisoner not for their own good, but also to the other prisoners in the facilities. Many inmates in prison are being sent in with disorders that are need special attention, and if sent to facilities in isolation and overcrowding, they will exit with an even worse condition than how they went in. In “Are too many with psychiatric problems behind bars?” , At age 16, Kalief Browder was falsely accused of stealing a backpack and sent to New York City 's notorious Rikers Island jail after he was unable to post bail. He spent three years at the facility — two in solitary confinement — before being released, never having gone to trial. Like many inmates who have endured solitary, the once sociable
The health care system services in the prison has many flaws in the services that they provide for the prisoners, which can varies among individual by sex, race, and others account. According to Young (2000), “The majority of women in U.S. prisons belong to groups which systematically experience race, class, and, of course, gender oppression. On an individual level, the institutionalized nature of oppression means that people are not afforded the same opportunities to pursue economic, social, and personal well-being” (p. 220). The rate of incarceration females in prison and jails per 100,000 were black females 260 per 100,000, Hispanic females 133 per 100,000, and White female were 91 per 100,000 (US Department of Justice, 2015).The health
In order to outlive the prison experience, inmates are constrained to endure great psychological changes. Noetic harm inflicted whilst imprisonment as well the challenges posed have only grown over the last several decades. These challenges include a much-discussed de-emphasis on rehabilitation as an objective of imprisonment along with rigorous policies and conditions of solitary confinement. Thus, creating prisons more troublesome places to adapt and sustain oneself. Adjustment to advanced imprisonment demands particular mental costs of incarcerated persons; few individuals are more vulnerable to the pains of imprisonment than others.
Determining the mental health and the emotional stability of an offender leads to give a better understanding of why they commit crime. In recent years, the youth crime is controlled with carefully analyzed and designed procedures including the study of what behaviors lead them to commit crime. The trend analysis showed that the youth crime has declined as compared to past years. It is a sign of peaceful society indeed but the efforts which led this happen are more important to explain. In US, the youth criminal in the custody of police is low and as state has attempted to use ‘evidence based programming’ to control youth crime.
The shift is attributed to the unexpected clinical needs of this new outpatient population, the inability of community mental health centers to meet these needs, and the changes in mental health laws (Pollack & Feldman, 2003). Thousands of mentally ill people flowing in and out of the nation 's jails and prisons. In many cases, it has placed the mentally ill right back where they started locked up in facilities, but these jail and prison facilities are ill-equipped to properly treat and help them. In 2006 the Bureau of Justice Statistics estimated that there were; 705,600 mentally ill inmates in state prisons, 78,000 in federal prisons, and
The American Psychiatric Association estimated in 2000 that one in five prisoners were seriously mentally ill, with up to 5 percent actively psychotic at any given moment. In 1999, the statistical arm of the Justice Department estimated that 16 percent of state and federal prisoners and inmates in jails were suffering from mental illness. These illnesses included schizophrenia, manic depression (or bipolar disorder) and major depression.
Another issue that the American prison systems were facing was their constant practice of locking away mentally ill individuals to very long prison sentences that only seriously worsened their conditions, and even made their chances of overcoming mental illness, nearly impossible. Even medications that were prescribed to these individuals made them suffer serious and sometimes even worse, side effects. Although some states banned the high rates of mentally ill individuals to prisons, this only meant they were more targeted and thrown in jail for petty offenses by police. Many prisons do not have the resources, nor the skills needed to adequately and appropriately care for the mentally ill, therefore many of them suffer and even die from this
The United States has a larger percent of its population incarcerated than any other country. America is responsible for a quarter of the world’s inmates, and its incarceration rate is growing exponentially. The expense generated by these overcrowded prisons cost the country a substantial amount of money every year. While people are incarcerated for several reasons, the country’s prisons are focused on punishment rather than reform, and the result is a misguided system that fails to rehabilitate criminals or discourage crime. This literature review will discuss the ineffectiveness of the United States’ criminal justice system and how mass incarceration of non-violent offenders, racial profiling, and a high rate of recidivism has become a problem.
The United States has the highest rate of incarceration in the world (Walmsley, 2013). One of the greatest known factors that indicate the potential for an individual to be incarcerated is a previous incarceration. Rates of recidivism are as high as 78% can occur within five years of release from prison (Jonson, 2010). Many programs have been reported such as drug courts, electronic monitoring and treatment programs to lower recidivism rates; however many do not include statistics over a two-year period (Jonson, 2010). As costs of incarceration inhibit another public spending, focusing on reducing recidivism would lessen the burden to taxpayers while providing offenders with the ability not to offend.