In Utilitarianism the standard of morality is set on the basis of what is good for most and not just for one person. John Stuart Mill stated that: “The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of
By way of the idealized influence component, Transformational leaders are thought to influence followers to develop a collectivistic orientation rather than a selfish one, to internalize moral values transmitted by the leader (Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993). In Ebbers case there was no moral values transmitted. Things considered moral values that makes him seem a good leader are unethical because of the motive behind it. Ethical leaders are considered both “moral persons” and “moral managers” (Treviño et al, 2000). According to Treviño & Brown, 2005 “Ethical leaders are thought to be moral persons because they are honest and trustworthy, take good care of their people, and do the right things in both their personal and professional lives.
Therefore, Lord Devlin based on consensual morality has focused more on the enforcement of morality according to the general concept of society. To understand the relationship between law and morality, Lord Devlin has proposed a set of rules. Firstly, the requirement of general sense of right and wrong in a society which is known as common morality as it is a right-minded value that should be maintained by the law. Secondly, there may be bad laws, bad morals or bad societies due to the reason that the law might not serve the society but destroy it even though it is a valid law and provides profit to some people in the
By this thought, Norman Chase Gillespie (133) decried the normative and relativistic understanding of ethics in business in the contemporary times; uninfluenced by morality. The idea boils down to this: If everyone in business behaves in a certain way, that’s the rule of the game; thus, the current ethical standard to follow. I chose this quote because it provides a realistic view in certain areas of the contemporary business environment. The idea from Carr operates under a
The party with the most important rights. a. Deontology I have the most important rights because I am required to perform the principles of integrity and confidentiality, and professional codes of ethics to benefits my current clients and not to do harm to my previous client. b. Utilitarianism Company B has the most important rights because it should recruit a practitioner who provides the services professionally, having high competence, and being free from any conflicts of interests with it potential competitors so that that practitioner can gather as much as information without the violation of confidentiality principle. c. Virtue I have the most important rights because I can tell company the company B that another bidder is one of my previous and current clients, and determine not to reveal any confidential information of any clients because of the principle of confidentiality. Therefore, I can keep serving company B without hurting company A.
Kinicki (2017, p.106), outlines that “ethics are the standards of right and wrong that influence behaviour while ethical behaviour is the behaviour accepted as “right” as opposed to “wrong” according to those standards”. In any organisation, it is important that the stakeholders and management focus on the ethics of the business while trying to make profits and becoming productive as this can tarnish the business reputation and performance.When uethical behaviours are ignored they can create serious problems. Managers therefore need to behave ethically as this has a great impact on the business's efficiency and effectiveness. Managers need to realize that they are seen as the role models for their company. Their behaviour will
Considering these facts one can say that cultural relativism has been well established in relation to traditional ethical theories, the corruption process is accepted based on the fact that one society has the possibility to pay its officers better and the other does not have the possibility to do, so is obliged to accept the corruption that is being made. Values and morality are not specific to certain culture and corruption relative to another one. Cultural relativism is totally different from the traditional ethical theories, which is to formulate rules of action that everyone, people of all time, places and communities, must obey if they want to consider themselves ethically responsible. This is where the conflict is found, where one wants the rules to be specific to one culture and the other wants the same rules to be followed by all
For, the adoption of the discrepancies and conformities of ethics in host markets is a considerable asset for an achieved and coherent business structure while running company operations on the international basis. Host county culture and moral values are fundamental factors in determining the ethical perceptions regarding the new market as to estimate the mindsets of the potential clients since every nation has its own ethical standards. The differences between western and eastern ethical practices are mainly on the focus. The western ethics mainly focuses on finding the truth of the problem and eastern focuses on protocol and respect to others. Next difference is western ethics is on the basis of rational thoughts whereas eastern ethics is on religious teachings.
To maintain project success , Ethics tested very keenly while dealing with international programmes. Importance of culture highlighted in this matter .Differentiation of culture can cause effects ethically to the project success. It is project manager duty to chose team according to thier culture to avoid further failures. (Cagle, Ronald B , 2005) • Role of Politics and Communication • Success of projects is mainly depends upon the role of project manager . Project managers approach to understand the importance of Organization Politics and tactics to use this for success of Projects is make him successful manager .
This principle is drawn from the deontological ethical theory of Kant (1724-1804) based on the respect for persons principle that persons should be treated as ends and never only as means. This implies that the corporation must treat its stakeholders as rational beings with a right to purpose their own interests without undue interference. Criticisms of Stakeholder Theory According to some, however, stakeholder theory ‘has been advanced and justified in the management literature on the basis of its descriptive accuracy, instrumental power and normative validity’ (Donaldson & Dunfee, 1995). Stakeholder theory has acquired opponents from various sides of the ideological divide, critiques from right and left, from friend to foe (Philips et al., 2003). Derived from classical Friedman principles, writers such as Sternberg (1997) have argued that the principles of stakeholder theory undermine the property rights of the owners of the company, comprise the mechanisms of the free market, destabilise the operations of government and changes the very nature of capitalism.