Educators should strive to become aware of the linguistic values and attitudes implicit in and our classroom discourse (Sayer, 2008). By allowing students to use home languages, educators promote pride in learners’ ethnolinguistic identities and teach learners how to use their linguistic toolkit for academic content learning. It is important to consider the new millennium demands educators and learners not only becoming bilinguals but becoming biliterate. Biliterate individuals are distinguished by being advanced bilinguals who are proficient at communicating in two languages in terms of literacy skills, that is, reading and writing. Then, educators and learners need to adopt a lens which makes them recognize and build translanguging practices in today’s classrooms; in few words continua of biliteracy.
What do we actually learn from communication theory? According to International Association of Communication Activists (IACACT) (n.d.), one of the value of understanding communication theory is to cultivate critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills are important as it show the perspectives of our thinking and knowledge we have. As a prove, cultivation thinking skills have been put on top of the list in the current English teaching and educational reform besides 2,000 version of Higher Education Teaching for English Majors also stresses its importance (Yue & Ning, 2015). Critical thinking also can be perceived as vital skills required for mastery of school subjects (Yusuf & Adeoye,
As one of the consequences of this in foreign and second language teaching, meticulous studies on learner needs have become prerequisites for effective course design. It is vital for language learners to learn a foreign language successfully. A “one-size-fits all” approach has proven to be ineffective by research findings in terms of specificity of the tasks, genres and discourse in various situations that language learners has to operate. Every language course ought to be considered a course and they should not be designed without a thorough needs analysis (Long, 2005). Basturkmen (2010) gives a clear definition of needs analysis practice: ESP courses set out to teach the language and communication skills that specific groups of learners need to function effectively in their disciplines of study, professions or workplaces.
Ryan (2009) also shared a similar definition of extrinsic motivation where the terms referred to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome. What the scholars mean in obtaining something and the separable outcome was to get some benefits or advantages from the actions done. Santrock (2011) stated that extrinsic motivation was frequently influenced by external incentives such as reward and punishment. This type of motivation can be seen in the case of students learning English in order to get better chance in job hunting and future career. Working hard for a promotion was also the case for the extrinsic motivation as the action is driven by the external goal.
In 'The Place of English' essay I interrogate the English curriculum throughout history, tying it to socio-political-historical contexts of the time to argue for a curriculum centred on the society our students find themselves in. Finally in my Case Study, I look in-depth at how labelling has negatively affected a student’s development in English and arguing for a system that looks at a child: not at a name. There have been two key texts that influenced both my portfolio, and my practice. Firstly, Susan Harts ‘Learning Without Limits’ has solidified my ideology in which building self-esteem for individual students is of paramount importance, which stems from understanding the individual and their ability, not just the ability group they have been put in. Secondly, Anne Turvey, John Yandell and Leila Ali’s work ‘English as a site of cultural negotiation and contestation’ has highlighted the complex social relationships that are situated in the classroom, especially in the light of standards-based
Students’ motivation has been discussed as an important factor for successful school learning (Ryan & Connell, 1989) and second/foreign language learning (Dörnyei, 1998). In this sense, different theories and definitions of motivation have been presented. It is one of the most complex concepts in applied linguistics and educational psychology (Dörnyei & Cumming, 2003). Motivation refers to the reasons prompting a specific behavior (Guay et al., 2010). It is a process that includes directive and provoking properties (Brophy, 1983).
This article is about “Motivation, Its Types and Its Impact in Language Learning” published by two authors whom is Dr. Tengku Sepora Tengku Mahadi and Sepideh Moghaddas Jafari, PhD Student, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2012. In this article the author’s purpose is to research the effect of motivation in the context of language. The authors have been continually attempting to find out and discover the connection between learning strategies and the success of language learners. Motivation plays an important role in the process to learn a language. This article is proposed to reveal insight into what it takes to build up and deal with a powerful and effective language classroom as far as learner’s inspiration.
Motivating Factors to be derived from Active Learning: One of the major motivating factors for ESL students in Viet Nam and indeed, almost any ESL situation, is the added value that demonstrable English capacity in spoken and written form contributes to a person’s relative value in the marketplace. It is critical for any student the world over, to consider the role that education will play in the outcome of their future. Thus, Active Learning, with its aspects of self-study augmented with engaged participation becomes a very desirable form of educational experience. Learning that has direct applications to work related situations can play a very important role in shaping a students expectations. In some cases it may allow a student to experience certain types of work environments before deciding on concentrating on one specific discipline.
Motivation is further separated into two types: Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation .Intrinsic motivation define as; “delight of language learning itself”, and extrinsic motivation, define as; “motivation that drive by parental pressure , societal expectations, academic requirements or the other source of rewards and punishments” Richards,(2002:P,343) The researcher Rico, L.J.A. (2014) investigates the study of Identifying factors causing difficulties to productive skills: among foreign languages learners, in which he has used a qualitative method to collect data which was based on case study. The arithmetic the data has collected throughout three instruments: six observations, two interviews and field notes. Through classroom observations he has played the role of a non-participant observer. In this investigation these were helpful in distinctive what participants felt when articulating their thoughts in
CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Peer Assessment in English Language Learning Traditionally, what is so called as ‘summative assessment’ has been used by teachers to determine students’ learning result which has a great impact on their progession and degree classification (Paul Orsmond, 2004). It puts a heavy emphasis on students’ products rather than students’ processes. However, students’ end-products cannot be the only consideration for meaningful learning. Thus, according to Orsmond (2004), cited in Heron (1988), a change in assessment was needed in which students are inclusive so that students can involve in assessment activity and judge their progess based on their peers’ feedback. The model of assessment – which are peer assessment - also involves students and teachers work collaboratively.