Cummins (2005) states that instruction should be done only using target language, and translation between the two languages should not be allowed. On the one hand, many researchers like Zentella (1981), Shin (2005), Setati, Adler, Reed and Bapoo (2002) state the negative effects of the usage of two languages in the classroom. While on the other hand, researchers like Lin (2005), Martin (2005) and Arthur & Martin (2006) bring different arguments to state the useful character of bilingual classrooms such as better learning process, safe practice for the students, participation, etc. Different researchers give different explanations to the term “bilingualism”. Baker (2003), for instance, describes it with diglossia stating that each language has different social functions.
On the other hand, a dubbed translation can be subjected to sociopolitical circumstances and has to be adjusted due to lip synchronicity or matching mouth movements. The audience is not able to hear the original actor’s voice, whereby some authenticity is lost, which is one of the major disadvantages of dubbing. It is important to stress that in animated films, both in the original and the dubbed versions, animated characters are brought to life by the specific voice actors in the recording studio, so no authenticity is in fact
However, I noticed that the length of the majority of the top line subtitles was longer than the second line. With regards to the translation level, several issues involved in the subtitling of the movie have been noticed. One of the issues that I felt is particularly important or problematic in the translation of the film, is the translation of slang, and terms related to sex. Translating slang is problematic in more than one way. There is not always an equivalent slang expression in the target language.
One way to solve this problem is to find a new rhythm in local language. Secondly, it is necessary to know the object and subject in the activity of translation aesthetics. The subject of translation aesthetic are translator and reader. At the first step, translator is required to have a special capability of aesthetic. It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text.
After we watched the movie as a group I watched parts of the film at home with subtitles. The subtitles were far more proficient in portraying the dramatic scenes of the film. Also, the dubbed version of the film was spoken in broken English by the original actors. While this maybe seen as a way to keep the dialogue consistent with the original, the actors speak in broken English, which ruins the dubbed over version. I think the film should stick to the subtitled version because although you are reading the words, you can hear the emotion in their voice more.
For this reason the translator has to produce a target text that is simple, intelligible and readable at high speed. Moreover, movie audiences are often from different backgrounds and can be educated, literate or even partially illiterate. They can also be of various age groups, or from different social classes. Thus, the translator has to adapt his target text so that it can be understood by a wide
The main fields that utilize this technique are; advertisement, theatre, cinema and audiovisual device communication. An audiovisual text is multimodal if its production and interpretation apply the use of a variety of modes. If the various modes are combined in different kinds of media, focusing more on the screen, it becomes a multimedia text (Díaz-Cintas & Anderman, 2009).In recent times, audiovisual translation has been incorporated into academic research where it is separately taught as translation studies. In the Meta; Translators’ Journal, Chaume (2004) suggests that for efficient audiovisual translation, application of knowledge from other disciplines in necessary for adequate
Multilingualism is the norm in almost every single place of the world and current governments are challenged to implement multilingual policies in educational contexts. In Europe, transnational agencies, such as The European Commission, encourage all their citizens the learning of their mother tongue and two other languages. As a result, multilingual education programmes have been on the rise in the last two decades. As proposed by Cenoz and Gorter (2015, p. 2), multilingual education could be defined as “the use of two or more languages in education, provided that schools aim at multilingualism and multiliteracy”. In the case of Spain where several languages coexist in the bilingual regions of Spain, multilingual programmes combine the use of the national state language (i.e.
In his 1986 essay “The Translator’s Invisibility”, Venuti stated that, along with “the increasingly sophisticated literature on translation”, the urgently needed task of demystifying the process “had been initiated by the prefaces that translators themselves have occasionally appended to their work” where they describe the “labor of transformation” of the text (1986: 181). Venuti’s introduction in 1992 to Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology gave the impression that he was not as optimistic about translators’ prefaces and their contribution to the struggle to make translation a visible activity. He believed translators were so busy moving from text to text that they had no time for methodological reflection. Translators are always hard at work, but they are producing translations, not translation commentary, criticism, or theory; they appear as aesthetically sensitive amateurs or talented craftsmen, but not critically self-conscious writers who develop an acute awareness of the cultural and social conditions of their
In India there are many peoples who are able to speak more than one language. Therefore there is a need to identify the effect of languages on a multilingual speaker identification system. When the Multilingual speaker identification system is being transferred to real applications, the need for greater adaptation in identification is required. The performance of the monolingual speaker identification systems tends to decreases when speaker is speaking in another language. Therefore there is a need to make such systems which can work for multiple