Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce of diminished by a punisher. Operant conditioning was first introduced when B.F. Skinner discovered, while he was studying the psychology of behaviorist movement, and the individual learns a particular behavior through interaction with the environment. There are many ways to apply operant conditioning to everyday life. In the environment, the events or stimulus that occur would result in the individual changing their behavior when the individual interacts with the environment. For example, if the individuals' person performs a specific action, they get a positive reinforcement, such as a treat. There are many ways that there would be an increase in the behavior of such a response in the future. My operant conditioning example is when I am teaching my cousin's dog how to sit down. When my cousin was young she wanted a dog, and I would always watch her play with her dog named Spark. I would watch my cousin try to put Spark in the front of her two-seat car and try to strap him down, but Spark will always try to bite her.
Pavlov developed the theory of Classical Conditioning. This is where certain stimuli can invoke particular behavior. He conducted his experiments on dogs, testing whether or not he could condition them to salivate at the sound of a bell. At first, along with the bell, he would hold up food, causing the dogs to salivate. After repeating this action numerous times, Pavlov would ring the bell without the food and found that the dogs would still salivate. The food acted as a positive stimulus to warrant a certain behavior while an unconditioned stimulus paired with it over time brought the same result.
Socio-behaviorists often study how children 's experiences model their behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Behaviorism believes that what matters is not the development itself, but the external factors that shape children 's behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). This theory demonstrates that teachers and mentors dominate and instruct child-related activities, and they decide what children should learn and how to learn (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Reinforcement, which is an essential factor that helps children to learn particular behaviors, generally refers to rewards and punishments (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Children are more likely to repeat actions that result in receiving praise; in contrast, they may ignore or abandon behaviors that make them get punishment. Nevertheless, Skinner points out that children learn nothing from the punishment. Instead, they may start to work out how to avoid it (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Another concept is classical conditioning (classical behaviorism) that emphasizes on the relation between stimuli and response. This concept embodies in a famous experiment, in which the food is presented to the dog when the bell rings, and the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus for the dog (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Likewise, if children receive toys in the condition that they behave well, then they will probably repeat this behavior to get the toys. Nevertheless, Pavlov 's theory of classical conditioning is somehow extreme, as it reduces
Based on this belief Watson and Raynor (1920) designed the Little Albert Experiment to explore how classical conditioning can be used to condition an emotional response. “Classical conditioning occurs when two stimuli become associated with one another such that one stimulus now triggers a response that previously was triggered by the other stimulus,” (Passer & Smith, 2011, p. 214).
My coach for soccer has taught me how to play soccer from a young age and in order for my coach to be able to coach me successfully the coach would need a ball and soccer training methods. My version of playing soccer was just passing a ball and the soccer ball was the object I made an association with and when I was starting to take soccer seriously it meant I would need a coach and I did not know how a coach was and how it would enable me to be able to play soccer and it classical conditioning terms it would be called unconditioned association. The unconditioned stimuli (UCS), which is the coach, is going to enable me to emit a response which is to be able to play soccer and the behaviour I emit is known as the unconditioned response (UCR) because the coach has not yet taught me how to play soccer. When the coach starts coaching me to become a good soccer player, the coach moves from being the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to the neutral stimulus (NS), the coach becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) because she has been training me on a regular basis which results in my unconditioned response (UCR) becoming the conditioned response (CR) which is to play soccer the proper way by; passing, dribbling, defending and shooting. There is a relationship I have created between the coach and the soccer ball and that is called a conditioned association. Acquisition is a
The first thing we discussed was classical conditioning. It sort of all started after Pavlov’s experiment with the dogs. John B. Watson, a psychologist, began his testing on emotional conditioning. John’s theory was that people are not born with a fear of objects. He persisted to hypothesize that we do have to learn to be surprised or frightened, it happens automatically. John organized tests to reveal that we do not have to learn to be afraid, but what objects we fear must be learned. An unconditioned stimulus is a sudden, loud noise. The unconditioned stimulus is for the unconditioned response of fear. The conditioned response of fear is known as a conditioned emotional response (CER). We then defined important words from this lesson. A stimulus generalization “is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses
I used to love eating seafood when I was around the age years of three through six, especially crabs. However, as I grew up, I began to hate it because I started to recognize the repulsive smell of seafood (including crabs). The smell of seafood is just so disgusting that it makes me want to vomit. Nonetheless, how does this correlate to classical conditioning and what is classical conditioning? According to Rathus (2015) classical conditioning is basically learning to identify occurrences or events with other events (p. 125). My aversion with seafood and classical conditioning is associated with the smell of seafood. When the aroma of seafood is around, I will immediately breathe out of my mouth, or flee to another space.
In classical conditioning, whether we are human beings or animals, our first learning is acquisition. Classical conditioning happens upon the appearance of 2 stimuli put together, this occurs effortlessly and unconsciously. Acquisition is the link of the unconditional stimulus and a conditioned stimulus. US, stimulus that produces a reply without previous knowledge. CS, a formerly neutral stimulus that evokes a conditioned response after being linked with the US. In order for this to function well we need contiguity and contingency. As mentioned above this process is quite effortlessly and it even happens unconsciously. Therefore, dogs can be fairly train within a reasonable amount of time to be service dogs with the help of contiguity and contingency. Just like humans, dogs need as much company as we do. Being able to have that mutual bond and being able to help their owners’ is crucial for both the dog and their owners. Learning is a permanent change within us, it develops through our personal experience. Once a method is learned, we do not have to learn that procedure again. Basically,
Our bodies make unconditioned responses all the time. One time I poured sour milk into my bowl of cereal and I started to immediately feel sick to my stomach. My unconditioned response was nausea and gagging. Moreover, if someone were to loudly clap in front of my face, I would flinch and shit my eyes. I did not tell myself to close my eyes or flinch, the response was automatic and unlearned. Another example of classical conditioning would be when I decided to set my favorite song as my alarm clock tone to wake up for school in the morning. My initial thought was that I would wake up in a happy, upbeat mood because the first thing I would hear is my favorite song. However, I was completely wrong. Instead, I would later begin to despise that song because I would associate it with having to wake up and get ready, which is the last thing I want to do when I am tired. The lesson I learned is to never set a song you like as your alarm clock tone unless you want to hate it. This could be an example of counterconditioning because the song that once caused me joy (unconditioned response) began to cause a negative feeling instead “Counterconditioning”’ is a technique that focuses on changing one’s
Classical conditioning suggests that everything from speech to emotional responses was simply patterns of stimulus and response (McLeod, 2014). In stage one of classical conditioning; the unconditioned stimulus produces an unconditioned
On the other hand, classical conditioning is a learning way that connects between two stimuli which produce natural response. It measures one stimulus that
The conditioned response, or the CR, is the response that occurs whenever the unconditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus (Spielman, 2014). The example of Ivan Pavlov’s study with dog’s can show how this occurs; when food is presented with a bell, the dogs will salivate. Eventually the dogs will salivate when they hear the bell alone. The bell is the neutral stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus is the food, and the conditioned response is the salivating (Spielman, 2014). Extinction occurs when a decrease in the CR occurs because the unconditioned stimulus is not continually presented with the conditioned stimulus (Spielman, 2014). In the example with the dogs salivating because of the bell associated with the food, extinction would occur if someone continually rang the bell but
Classical conditioning is forming associations between co-occurring and operant conditioning is rewards and punishment shape behavior. During my observation I witnessed operant conditioning and the reward side with potty training. There were a couple times I witnesses this and her getting the reward and also with her not getting the reward. Her mom explained to her that if she goes to the bathroom and really goes then she will receive a little candy or treat. One of the first times she went to the bathroom but didn 't go but when she was done asked for that treat or candy, but her mom did her mother duty and checked, and she really didn 't go and use the restroom, so she did not receive the treat which she didn 't understand why because she went to the bathroom. Just a little while later she used her little potty training potty and after both her mom and dad gave her verbal praise and she got to pick a treat out of the jar. I did a follow up with the family to see how the potty training is going and they explained that it is going very well and they are happy with the
The unconditioned stimuli is the Beggin’ Strip. The unconditioned response is Sparky automatically drooling. The conditioned stimulus is the Justin Beiber song. The conditioned response is the Justin Beiber song evoking the dog to drool, before he sees the Beggin’ Strip.
My most vivid stimulus I would have to say is the smell of a pipe. Growing up I spent a lot of time with my poppy (grandfather) and he was always smoking a pipe. When he was not smoking it he smelled of it. When he was not around and I would smell a pipe I thought of him and thinks that we talked about. I would say this would be classical conditioning. The smell of a pipe triggers feelings and emotions about my past. Just with substance abuse I feel it works the same way. A certain smell, or even a feeling can be a trigger. This can cause a relapse. I know I have been substance free for a long time, however, certain smells today will trigger that feeling for me back when I was using. I learned to reverse the trigger.