Angelou also expresses this powerful and courageous tone in the very first stanza. The author illustrates, “you may write me down in history with your bitter, twisted lies, you may trod me in the very dirt, but still, like dust, I 'll rise” (Angelou). This quote shows how bitter and prejudice whites treated blacks in this time period, but Angelou was unhindered and determined to go down swinging. Angelou rhymes “lies” and “rise” in this stanza which is effective in explaining her experience living through segregation and abuse, because it shows there was no sincerity between the two races and through that she still brought herself up to be better. The placement of this stanza was strategically brilliant.
In the essay, “A Genealogy of Modern Racism”, the author Dr. Cornel West discusses racism in depth, while conveying why whites feel this sense of superiority. We learn through his discussion that whites have been forced to treat black harshly due to the knowledge that was given to them about the aesthetics of beauty and civility. This knowledge that was bestowed on the whites in the modern West, taught them that they were superior to all races tat did not emulate the norms of whites. According to Dr. West the very idea that blacks were even human beings is a concept that was a “relatively new discovery of the modern West”, and that equality of beauty, culture, and intellect in blacks remains problematic and controversial in intellectual circles
Racism happens everywhere—it could be at school, home, online, public places, sports, and work and in the media. In the center of the questions of how to label racism is whether to embrace forms of discrimination that are accidental, such as making assumptions about preferences or abilities of others based on racial stereotypes, whether to include emblematic or institutionalized forms of discrimination such as the flow of ethnic stereotypes in the course of the media, or whether to take account of the sociopolitical dynamics of social stratification that from time to time have a racial part. Racism can also lead to racial bias and employment discrimination. Dictionary definitions of xenophobia include: strong or illogical loathe or fear of people from other countries, unreasonable fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of
Wellman(1993) explains it as asserting that we all have our prejudices, and we can be prejudiced about things, ideas, or people. Hence anyone, regardless of color, can harbor prejudicial, even hatefully prejudicial feelings about any race. To be guilty of racism, however, to be a racist, say the revision proponents, one must have power, and power of a special sort. (p.256) This explanation brings us to discussion of reverse racism. Reverce racism is the most controversial form of racism in 21st century.
This assertion applies in a more general perspective because it is to be heard where stereotypes exist, which evidently is everywhere. Stereotypes have come to create a strong influence on society and is discreetly hurting the way one sees themself and their surroundings. For example, Sociologist Min-Hsiung-Huang recently decided to ask whether the race of the person administering the survey mattered: He found that when black people and white people answered 10 vocabulary questions posed by a White interviewer, blacks on average answered 5.49 questions correctly and whites answered 6.33 correctly—a gap typical of the ones found on many standardized test (cited from: How a Self Fulfilling Stereotype Can Drag Down Performance.) In the article, “How a Self Fulfilling Stereotype Can Drag Down Performance,” it states the reason African Americans scored more poorly on tests administered by white interviewers, Huang theorized, is that these situations can make the issue of race salient and subtly remind the test takers of the societal stereotype that blacks are intellectually inferior to whites.” Thus, showing the effect stereotypes can have on self performance and self image. Although this piece targets the effect identified as a “Stereotype Threat” there are many more involved.
Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space by Brent Staples discusses the relevant issues of racial bias and how prejudice against people of color has embedded minds, as it demonstrates the importance of being aware of how we conceive others. Staples uses a contrasting element of race by introducing a white female and a black male. He uses his experiences and other people of colour to display the struggles of racism they face everyday. Staples reveals how people are prejudice against appearance, despite the importance of individuality of people and being impartial regardless of someone 's skin or looks. The story begins with Staples describing his first experience frightening a white women due to the colour of his skin.
Discrimination: One or more group of people (separated by ethnic, racial, sexual orientation, gender, age, physical ability, religious, or other cultural differences) being systematically mistreated by those with social/fiscal power (Martin & Nakayama, 2014, 62) Discrimination can be instituted by entire communities, social and political establishments, or on an individual basis. b. Ethnocentrism often motivates prejudice, in that one who believes their culture is superior might take steps to enforce that believe and oppress those of inferior cultures. Ethnocentrism can also be reinforced by stereotypes, because if one subscribes to stereotypes that others are lazier, stupider, less capable, or more negative than themselves then they might agree that they are inherently better. However, stereotypes can exist in an individual’s mind without them subscribing to ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is inherently accompanied by prejudice because the act of believing other cultures to be inferior is an unfounded negative response.
Racism like other sociological concepts has existed throughout human’s history. It is defined as the conviction that a particular race is superior to the other according to their moral and social characteristics. This term is often negatively viewed, especially in terms of morals; therefore, if somebody appears to be a racist, he or she is described as unworthy or immoral. The believe that passage of civil rights legislation did away with racially discriminatory practices has made most white Americans and African Americans to lack recognition that racism exists. Wellman, (1993) emphasizes that race is a solemn category in America, how one is racially chosen greatly affects the experience of being an American.
If the original biased dataset D given to the associative classification algorithm whichgenerates frequent classification rules, rules and original dataset goes through an anti-discrimination process whichincludes discrimination discovery phase and discrimination prevention phase, provides transformed dataset D′, the rulesextracted from transformed dataset D′ could lead to an automated fair decision. The discriminatory items are stored as list in xmlfile for latter retrieval. The format of the file is mentioned inTable I. TABLE I. Xml format for discriminatory items Gender Female Race black . .