In a time of drastic change in America, adding such a controversial war to the mix of social issues seemed to many like an inappropriate decision. The Vietnam War, which lasted twenty years, from 1955 and 1975, was the battle for liberation of South Vietnam from North Vietnam. The communist North Vietnam, led by Ho Chi Minh, was backed by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and communist China in an attempt to overtake the South Vietnamese who were led by the Catholic minority, Ngo Dinh Diem. Before 1960, his corrupt and brutal ways were beginning to wear on his people. By 1963, the United States has decided that Diem must go and authorizes and assassination (Osman, 2 October).
He increased the number of forces in South Vietnam. The war escalated then he decided to not run for reelection. Nixon used the war to his advantage. He promised to find a way to end the Vietnam War, pledging America would have “peace with honor”. Now he had to uphold this promise and implement a plan, but it didn’t work.
How did Lyndon B. Johnson make the Vietnam War his own? Lyndon B. Johnson made Vietnam War his own after the assassination of President of John F. Kennedy in Dallas in November 1963. At the time Johnson was Vice President to Kennedy but would later win a full term in the next election. During this time America had about 17,000 military adviser in the South Vietnam government. Johnson made it his war on Augusta 1964 when a North Vietnamese patrol fired on an American vessel which caused Johnson to proclaim that the United States was a victim of aggression.
The period from 1960’s to 1970’s was a hardship time for Americans because of Vietnam invasion. In an attempt to contain and defeat communism, the United States, oblivious of the enemy capability and filled with pride, invaded Vietnam at a cost of large financial expense and human lives. North Vietnamese military supported by forces of China and the Soviet Union fought the American force ferociously and was able to force America to end its invasion in 1975. As with most other third world countries, Vietnam also has a long history of colonization by European powers. The territory that occupies modern-day Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia, was part of French-Indochina, as one of France’s collection of many colonies.
4. John F. Kennedy was president through 1961 -1963 and was a firm believer in containing communism and made it clear that he would continue the same policy of former President Eisenhower in supporting the government in South Vietnam along with the ‘Domino Theory’ which suggested that if one country in a region were to fall under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino-like effect. While Kennedy had been warned that further involvement of warfare in Vietnam would only trap America in a “bottomless military and political swamp” he still decided to further fund and expand the Vietnamese army from “150,000 to 170,000” soldiers and agreed to send an “extra 1000 US military advisors to South Vietnam” n order to help train the new Army.
On August 7, 1964 the Gulf of Tokin Resolution was passed to give congressional approval to expand the Vietnam War. We are not going to expand it because we agreed that you as the general public would disagree with that decision. My administration and I are being criticized for not pushing the war more aggressively, however, the decision is up to us, so we get to choose how we fight his war. Another update of the
The assassination of President Kennedy in November 1963 threatened the legislation he had fought so hard to achieve. However, an unlikely supporter in the minds of most civil rights organizations was found in the new president, Lyndon B. Johnson (EEOC, n.d.). With the nation still grief-stricken by its tragic loss, President Johnson addressed Congress in a humbling manner, in which he stated “We have talked long enough in this country about civil rights. It is time to write the next chapter and to write it in the books of law . .
The United States had stumbled into another overseas quagmire—history seemed to be repeating itself when, once again, we were led by a group of men who launched wars without exit strategies and fail to understand the nature of their enemy. The United States got involved in order to stop the spread of communism. The belief was that if Vietnam fell, so then would Cambodia, Laos, etc. Vietnam was the longest war the U.S. had ever been it—15 years. In Vietnam, Americans were told that the U.S. was involved because the
While Johnson was President, he declared a National war that was based on poverty and also witnessed the Civil Rights bill become a law in 1965. Involvement with the war in Vietnam started to affect his presidency. Between all the wars, Lyndon increased the population in the American military from 16,300 to 500,000. Johnson was not planning on seeking another
With Ngo Dihn Diem gone, communist forces pushed further south into Vietnam, pulling the United States forces deeper into the war. For President Lyndon B Johnson, pulling out of the war was not an option: we were too deeply involved, but this had gone on for long enough, we needed to put an end to this. "Operation Rolling Thunder" (1965-1968) would be the final push against communism in Vietnam: overall, the plan was a series of violent air/ground strikes that would block off communist access to southern Vietnam, instill fear and desperation, and cause such immense infrastructural damage that northern Vietnam could no longer function as a state. "The purpose of Rolling Thunder was to send a message to north Vietnam" (Bia) but whether the message was that of producing peace talks or forcing the cut-off of communists to southern Vietnam was largely debated: we could have allowed the space to produce peace talks, but the result could have been of North Vietnam reciprocating the attacks in force, we could not risk the time in allowing the possibility of communist production of aerial warfare, our only choice was to act fiercely
For Nixon, Vietnam was a two-front war, the battle was in Asia and America. Nixon, “saw himself engaged in a contest with the anti-war movement for the public mind in the United States and the private mind in Hanoi”. Clearly understanding that he would need public support, Nixon astutely identified the “silent majority” of American and gained their support for his policy of Vietnamization to end the Vietnam War. First, Nixon attempted an aggressive assault on North Vietnam with increased bombing raids. Soon it was realized the escalation and warfare would not be successful.
In 1956, South Vietnam, with American backing, refused to hold unification elections. Then in 1958, Communist led, Viet Cong, had begun to battle the South Vietnamese government. To support the South 's government, the United States sent in 2,000 military advisors then grew to 16,300 in 1963. The military condition deteriorated, and by 1963, South Vietnam had lost the fertile Mekong Delta to the Viet Cong. Then in 1965, President Lyndon Johnson escalated the war, commencing air strikes on North Vietnam and committing ground forces.
Also, this was followed by actions by the Supreme Court to say “that Truman had gone beyond his authority by moving to take over strike-bound mills to ensure the steady production of war material”. In the sixties, the outrage and turmoil over the war in Vietnam led to the passing of “the War Powers Act of 1973. The act limited and made more accountable the president’s powers as commander in chief”. This was also done in order for Congress to have more control over the actions of presidents, when troops are involved in foreign
In 1969, President Nixon gave a speech introducing his plan to pull the United States out of the war. The plan, Vietnamization, would consist of building up the South Vietnamese forces while removing US troops from combat. This plan instilled that the South Vietnamese forces would assume more responsibility for the war while US troops went home, as Americans had demanded. April of 1970 proved to sway from Nixon 's plan of removing troops as he announced that US troops would be entering Cambodia. An explosion of protests resulted, including the Kent State Incident previously mentioned.
It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam. The Nixon presidency has been pivotal in debates on American Cold War foreign policy and domestic politics. Next, on day 2 by using comparison between the New York Time and the magazine . then, according to the New York Time, “Saigon, South Vietnam, April 30 - Communist troops of North Vietnam and the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam poured into Saigon today as a century of Western influences came to an end" (Esper). On the other hand, according to the magazine, “The Communist victory of 30 April 1975 from the South Vietnamese (Black April) for that defeat; the victors