The chlorine atoms that are replaced by hydrogen atoms causes a higher presence and both are covalent bondings with strong intermolecular forces. The double bondings (Or triple bondings) in hydrocarbon tends to be stronger, but the chemical is flammable. Fluorocarbons are not flammable and are also polar covalent bondings, making them stable to ultraviolet radiation and prevents them from catalysing ozone depletion. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), one of the alternatives that contains C-Cl bondings have most of its molecules dismantled in the lower atmosphere before reaching the stratospheric ozone layer. Another chemical, Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), having no chlorine atoms which does not bring harm to the ozone layer is considered the best alternative since they are not flammable, such as CF3CH2F,1,1,12 tetrafluoroethane.
In addition, thorium is chemically more stable and more proliferation resistant than uranium. The benefits itself do not directly impact the utilitarian view, but the effects from these benefits do. Such effects are a safer outcome in the event a nuclear meltdown occurs, because thorium releases less radioactivity to the atmosphere. These results provide a greater net positive consequences for utilitarians because it positively affects people in the event that an accident were to occur; thorium fueled reactors can contain the radiation much easier than uranium fueled
In contrast, nuclear fusion also has some advantages like providing an ecofriendly fuel source through the use fusion reactors. Fusion reactors aim to exploit the energy produced by nuclear fusion in the form of heat. They then utilize this heat to operate steam powered generators that produce massive amounts of electricity. This creates a fuel source that produces no air pollution, less nuclear waste than other sources such as gasoline or fossil fuels, and is in great abundance. Fusion is also used in some of the rockets that spaceships used lift off the
Nuclear power plants use this use the heat that is created by fission to heat water that spins their turbines (“Nuclear Energy”). The potential is limitless, and it should be realized as they have low greenhouse gas emissions, are efficient, powerful, cheap and reliable. Positives outweigh the negatives, and we should keep on using nuclear energy. Firstly, nuclear power generation has low greenhouse gas emissions, which make it good for the environment. The actual fission
The extra protons were thought to provide the extra atomic mass, while the additional electrons would cancel out their positive charge, leaving the atom electrically neutral. Eventually, however, calculations using Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle showed it was not possible for electrons to be contained in the nucleus. There were other ideas. Ernest Rutherford in 1921 postulated a particle called the “neutron,” having a similar mass as a proton but electrically neutral. Rutherford imagined a paired proton and electron somehow joined in one particle.
Photoelectric interaction is one of the main interactions in producing x-rays. This occurs when an inner shell electron is knocked out leaving a hole that needs to be filled. It will be filled by an outer shell electron which will be filled by an auger electron eventually. Photoelectric interaction doesn’t have as much scatter compared to the other interactions. This is due to the photons being almost completely absorbed by the patient as the photons pass through the body to hit the image receptor.
Electrons in Metals Fallyn Walker 14423422 An electron is a negatively charged, sub atomic particle. It is a fermion, a particle named after the Fermi-Dirac statistics, which describes the electrons behaviour . Bohr proposed that the electron could move from orbitals. This could explain the spectrum for hydrogen but failed for other elements. The electron has a half integer spin, which leads to intrinsic angular momentum, a feature that all fermions possess.
The other four flavours are not seen naturally on Earth, but they can be made in particle accelerators; a piece of equipment used for accelerating subatomic particles to high velocities by means of electric or electromagnetic fields. Some of them may also exist inside of stars. This particle accelerator is extremely expensive to create, thus, improving the credibility of the existence of quarks and making this proof
But the wave model is not sufficient to explain the phenomena known as the ‘Photoelectric effect’. This effect was discovered when some electrons were emitted when light was focused on certain metals. There is a minimum threshold frequency of electromagnetic radiation for each metal needed to be directed to its surface in order to emit electrons. A certain amount of light could not be replaced with one frequency along with twice as much as light of half the frequency. The effect of light should be cumulative if light only acts as a wave and little by little the light should add up until it leads electrons to be emitted.
They depend on slow neutrons—in explosion, they are only as powerful as TNT. Though any type of explosion is detrimental, the explosion would not be as powerful
“Hydrogen bomb or H-bomb, is a weapon deriving a large portion of its energy from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes. In an atomic bomb, uranium or plutonium is split into lighter elements that together weigh less than the original atoms, the remainder of the mass appearing as energy. Unlike this fission bomb, the hydrogen bomb functions by the fusion, or joining together, of lighter elements into heavier elements. The end product again weighs less than its components, the difference once more appearing as energy. Because extremely high temperatures are required in order to initiate fusion reactions, the hydrogen bomb is also known as a thermonuclear bomb.” The hydrogen bomb is the most powerful bomb ever created.
The slightly negative end of another hydrogen chloride particle will become attracted to the other end of the particle which has a slight positive charge. Therefore the two dipoles will become drawn together because the electrons are not shared between the two particles of hydrogen chloride. The melting point of hydrogen chloride is -85.05 Celsius however water has a boiling point of 100 degrees. Therefore this proves that hydrogen bonding in water is more powerful than hydrogen chloride because water is more polar than HCL . Water has a higher boiling water because more energy is needed to break the water molecules apart in hydrogen chloride.