Under this type of analysis, a number of ratios used for measuring the meaningful quantitative relationship between the items of financial statements during the particular period. This type of analysis is useful in comparing the performance, efficiency, and profitability of several companies in the same group or divisions in the same company. In order to avoid the limitations of Comparative Statement, this type of analysis is designed. Under this method, financial statements are analyzed to measure the relationship of various figures with some common base. Accordingly, while preparing the Common Size income statement, total sales is taken as a common base and other items are expressed as a percentage of sales.
Accrual accounting and Cash flow accounting are critical factors which contribute to judgments and decision-makings that lead to a successful business. It is debatable whether accrual accounting is preferred to cash flow accounting, while there are some financial economists are in favor of using cash flow basic to report. This chapter will first give a foundation of accrual and cash flow accounting, then discuss the advantages as well as drawbacks of both methods and give the conclusion which type of accounting is suitable to record. Accrual accounting is an accounting that revenues are recognized when sales have been made and expenses are recorded when they are incurred, even the cash receipt from the revenue or the cash payment related to
This is calculated by determining the weight average cost of capital. Similarly the cost of capital is made up of equity and debt. Hence for the firm to maximise profit and obtain shareholders wealth the organisation must sell goods, contributing to the total revenue minus the total cost. Therefore the remainder or excess surplus is known as profit maximisation. In light of this when profits are maximised the firm make decisions to access shareholders wealth through the means of equity.
Measuring Profitability Ratios Profitability ratios measure a company’s ability to use its assets efficiently to produce profits. These ratios provide users of financial information with useful data such as how much net income is generated from each dollar of revenue and how much net income is generated per share of stock. Return on Sales
Competitive advantage of a firm is the edge that it has over its competitors (Altharti 2012).It is important to state that competitive advantage (CA) cannot be achieved without a business strategy or business model. It is the business strategy, which is the management game plan for creating value for stakeholders and earning a reasonable return on investment that gives a company a competitive advantage over rivals in terms of higher financial performance on revenue, return on investment etc. The author accepts that Porter’s generic strategy and value chain are important tools in understanding the competitive strategies being deployed by rivals in any industry analysis. An understanding of the generic strategies such as the broad low cost provider, broad differentiation strategy, and narrow focus strategies on cost and differentiation being deployed by competitors can provide opportunities for existing and potential competitors by trying to achieve a lower cost or better differentiation by rivals. The value chain is an internal analysis of how an organization organizes
People use it to measure how much the company actually earn out of sales. It is used for comparing similar companies. The company with higher profit margin means it has a better cost-control. This ratio reminds company of suitable budgeting on cost and sale(Kong, 2007). Promotion According to Kettler (1988), promotion can be viewed as an essential motivational factor for making purchase, changing the sense of customers on price or product by adding extra benefits.
ROA, is a financial ration that shows the company ability to generate profit out the used asset. Murniati (2016) found the higher the ROA of a company, the higher the value of the company 's assets and lead to higher stock prices as much in demand by investors. ROE, measures the ability of a company to generate profit on a certain equity. Although, there is no clear link between ROE and stock prices, Rotblut (2013) believe that it works effectively when combined with other indicators. He explained that ROE provide a quantitative measurement of management 's effectiveness at generating profits from a company 's net assets which lead to better trust on the company capability to generate profit and consequently higher demand on its share.
However, in a bid to ensure effective and up-to-date evaluation of the companies performance, stability, liquidity solvency, profitability and also to paint a picture to aid better understanding of the companies financial concepts, position and performance, financial statistics and data were collected from the companies published reports, financial statements, credit and investment advisory services. Also, a comprehensive analysis of the organization's overall performance was identified using a combination of profitability ratio, liquidity ratio, performance efficiency ratio, Debt and debt leverage ratio and service marketability
It must be full fill the business concern’s requirement. Every organization must maintain adequate amount of finance for their smooth running of the business organizations and to achieve the business goals. Importance of Finance can’t be neglect in an organization. Some are the importance of financial management is as follows: • Financial Planning Financial planning is an essential part of the business organization. Financial management helps to determine the financial requirements of the organization and leads to take financial planning to the organization.