With the number of incarcerated offenders growing each year, the cost of incarceration is expected to continue rising. According to the National Association of State Budget Office, correctional spending by state governments by 2011 was estimated to be at $50 billion annually (Collier, 2014,
The amount of rehabilitation provided in prisons is slowly increasing as more light is being shed on the issue. There is no difference between an inmate and a non-offender seeking treatment but the limitations for inmates to receive effective treatment they need are countless. “Sixty to 80 percent of the American inmate population has a history of substance abuse. Meanwhile, the number of drug-treatment slots in American prisons has declined by more than half since 1993” (Schlosser 54).
Similar to the disparities found at the pretrial and sentencing periods, a 2009 study of 15 states data over 15-year period found that the Latino rates of re-arrest and conviction after release were similar to those of whites but Latinos were punished with incarceration at levels higher than whites. Latinos make up two-thirds of the people listed in California’s gang injunctions database. The three year rates of recidivism were only 59.9% for Latinos
Solitary confinement is considered sever psychiatric harm after fifteen days. More than fifty percent of the US prisoners held in solitary confinement are held past this fifteen-day marker. (The Ethics of Solitary Confinement). "More widely, according to federal records, some 80,000 prisoners were held in solitary confinement across the US in 2005 - the last time such information was released by the government" (The Ethics of Solitary Confinement). If our government is withholding the information, there is clearly something amiss.
The streets and committing crimes is all they know and have grown used to. Another advantage is that the law can deter offenders who have already had two felonies from committing another crime. This is where the rehabilitation comes in place. The three strikes law seems to assist with steering offenders away from committing further crimes because following the second conviction there may be a reminder of what will happen if the felon commits another criminal act his or her freedom will be taken away and will receive a prison sentence of a mandatory twenty-five years, or worst, a life sentence. The thought of serving a life sentence may be the reason that some change their lifestyle and stop committing crimes.
About eighteen percent of youth referred to the juvenile court are held in detention, awaiting the outcome of their cases. Juveniles charged with drug or personal crimes are mostly likely to be charged With public order and property crimes less likely to get detention. Just as the use of detention has dramatically increased over time, informal adjustment of cases has declined over time, and formal hearings now account for the process in more than half of all juvenile cases. These two trends show the increasing formality of juvenile justice system in response. In cases where a petition has been filed, youth progress to the adjudicatory stage(equivalent to the criminal trial).If a youth is found guilty or plead guilty , he or she is adjudicated to felonious, or adjudication may be withheld contingent upon the youth completion of some program or sanction.
For example, "we are not moving nearly fast enough to reduce incarceration. Over 2 million Americans live caged behind bars, a 550 percent increase in the last 40 years." Thus, this shows that due to us still following the old system to many people are in jail for crimes that don’t deserve that crime. Another example is shown in article 2, line 2 "One in 35 American adults is under
According to the National Institute of Justice, “Recidivism refers to a person 's relapse into criminal behavior, often after the person receives sanctions or undergoes intervention for a previous crime,” (Recidivism). A study conducted in 2005 by the Bureau of Justice Statistics about recidivism revealed “about two-thirds (67.8%) of released prisoners were arrested for a new crime within 3 years” upon release (Cooper). These high rates are influenced by a number of factors both while in prison, and following release. For instance, drug offenders “underestimate their vulnerability post-incarceration,” especially because many often return to neighborhoods that are associated with pre-incarceration drug use. Not to mention, they need proper housing and employment to readjust into society, but they lack access because they are labeled in society (Chandler).
The main argument of Laura Dean-Mooney is that the 21 law saves lives because the number of people killed in crashes since the law was enacted has been cut in half. The number of crashes “ has been cut in half, from more than 5,000 individuals in the early 1980s to around 2,000 in 2005”(Dean Mooney 5). Another argument made was that the effects of alcohol are magnified when a teenager’s brain is still developing, “alcohol negatively affects all parts of the brain, include cognitive and decision-making abilities as well as coordination and memory”(Dean-Mooney 9). Dean-Mooney implies that since the legal drinking age has been 21, this law is the most studied in history. She highlights that scientific studies found the 21-year-old law saves lives on and off the road.
Domestic Violence in the UK, will affect 1 in 4 women, it leads to an average of two women being murdered each week per year. It accounts for 16% of all violent crime, however like the countries I have research it is still the least likely violent crime to be report to police. It has more repeated victims, on average there will have been 35 assaults before the victim calls the police. It is the number one reason for becoming homeless
Bohm indicates that when recidivism was defined similarly, rates remained static. Researchers felt a good indicator of an inmate’s inclination to continue to commit crimes upon released was his past arrest history. Prisoners who possessed extensive records of arrest /incarceration were more likely to be rearrested; therefore implying those with fewer arrests were less likely to refrain from committing criminal acts. Bohm also states that the most critical time for an inmate to relapse and return to prison is within the first year of release, “two-thirds of all the recidivism of the first 3 years occurred in the first year” and additionally …” more than three of every ten inmates are returned to prison within 4 years…”(2012). Research indicates
Research shows that fewer than 8 percent of the sex offenders completing the Sexual Offender Treatment Program return to prison. Sex Offender treatment is part of a comprehensive effort to increase community safety as a whole. Sex offender treatment is a vital key component of its Reentry Initiative, which is designed to help offenders start receivig the treatments, education and job training they need in prison so that they return to society making choices that will help keep them out of prison again. An estimated 95 percent of the sex offenders sentenced to prison in the end come back to the group.
Traffic crash rates have been inversely related with the minimum legal drinking age since the 1970’s. Studies conducted since the 1980’s analyzed how the change in the MLDA affected the outcome of total traffic crashes for youth, drinking-driving convictions, single-vehicle nighttime crash fatalities, and alcohol problems among youth. The MLDA needs to be at 21, because 67% of the studies completed have concluded that there was a significant decrease in traffic crashes and crash fatalities when the drinking age was higher. In addition, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimated that in 1987 alone, 1,071 traffic crashes were prevented because of the MLDA of 21 (NHTSA 1989). Lower rates of death caused by vehicle crashes were found in states with higher MLDA’s throughout these various studies, and a 16% decrease in vandalism rates were observed in 4 states that raised their MLDA.
Murder-Suicide in Families (2011), “States with less restrictive gun control laws have as much as eight times the rate of murder-suicides as those with the most restrictive gun control laws” (para. 7). Statistics like this one explain that strict gun laws has a greater chance of preventing murder-suicides. Knowing this can be a distinct advantage in having one way to combat this from happening. In addition Murder-Suicide in Families (2011), explains that “Nearly three-quarters (74 percent) of domestic violence survivors rate the assistance they received at their shelters as "very helpful," and another
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice System (TDCJ) incarcerates 143,691 inmates housed in 124 units (Texas Tribune, 2016). Nearly 95% of prison inmates across the United States will be released from prison (Petersilia, 2004), (as cited in Orrick and Vieraitis, 2015). 21,000 prisoners were released from Texas Prisons, and according to the statistics, one out of five of these inmates will within commit more crime three years after release (Burnett, 2015). According to Burnett (2015), recidivism in Texas is contributed to the lack of decent jobs and or supportive families, and ex-inmates tend to fall into the same environments without any new survival skills. Over time they go back to what they know best, which is to survive by way of criminal