I. INTRODUCTION With the rising need for secure, reliable and accessible information in today’s technology environment, the need for distributed databases and client/server applications is also increasing. A distributed database is a single logical database that is spread physically across computers in multiple locations that are connected by data network links. Distributed database is a kind of virtual database whose component parts are physically stored in a number of distinct real databases at a number of distinct locations. The users at any location can access data at anywhere in the network as if the data were all stored at the user’s own location.
Now a days every organization has automated their systems of information by handling the database with personal or any type of secret information. So, with these type of crucial and sensitive data, security and privacy issues becomes necessary. Now the question arises that what is database security and how it can be achieved? Protecting the private and personal data saved in any archive is known as database security. It deals with securing the database from intruders and illegal actions.
1. SQL History: SQL A structured query language used to delete, insert, update, and retrieve data from databases. It began in 1970 when Dr. E.F Codd published a paper entitled "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks." This paper described a new way of organizing data into a database and led to relational database systems that we use today. While the paper of Dr. Codd defined the structure, his colleagues Donald D. Chamberlain and Raymond F Boyce in IBM were developing the query language known as SQUARE (identifying queries as relational expressions), which used group theory and assigned math to select data from the database.
Relational Database Management System: This type of database management system that stores the data in the form of related tables. It is a social database administrator which deals with some typical kind of queries and uses SQL for the development of the database. This type of database is a very powerful database as it deals with the relations which makes the data manipulations easier other than any other database. It has the features of data entry, data deletion, and creating of new entry and records etc. the database provides the ease of accessing and maintaining data easily.
Most of all operational database is stored in a relational database. This optimizes the support of the inquiries transactions. For example, a watch store, each time a watch is sold,, it must be tracked on a daily. The inventory is always updating because it needs to be accounted for. The time span for an operational must be short to cover but a relational has to have longer time frame to be able to analyze and get the information required.
Question 1 Differentiate between database management system and information retrieval system by focusing on their functionalities. (30 marks). Database management system Information retrieval system Main software in computer system Obtain resources to the information relevant Offer Data modelling Facility Restricted to classify of object Structured data format Unstructured data format Provide precise semantics Provide imprecise semantics Complete of query specification Incomplete of query specification Data dictionary system management Item normalization Data transformation and presentation Document database search Backup and recovery management Index database search Data store management Selective dissemination of information
ABSTRACT 1.0INTRODUCTION 2.0 CURRENT ISSUES / CHALLENGES 2.1 Archives as constructed memory Archives are basically known as a place or building where permanent records are or may be stored. Those records are actually all being kept in memory in the archives. The memory usually known as separated parts such as personal memory, collective (social) memory, historical memory and archival memory. The aim of memory existence is to enable people searching for information from the past and claiming for evidence if any affair comes up in future. In this situation, archivists are playing important role as they do responsible managing records whether to preserve or give an access for certain collection of records.
Both structured and unstructured data is stored. Storage It stores small amount of data ranging from gigabytes to terabytes. Big data helps to store and process large amount of data which consists of hundreds of terabytes of data or petabytes of data and beyond. Data relationship In traditional database system, relationship between the data items can be explored easily as the number of information stored is small. Big data contains massive or voluminous data which increase the level of difficulty in figuring out the relationship between the data items.
That data is not in proper organised form. For example: html, xml Since big data is collection of structured, unstructured and semi structured data so big data have enough potential to do tasks that were impossible earlier like disease management, crime management, providing new direction in business enterprises.. Many areas or fields of science currently facing exponential growth in volume of data as compared to past years. It is true that big data revolutionized the research field but at same time challenges are faced in dealing with big data so there is need of emergence of new technology to utilize full potential of big data and addressing confronted challenges.As discussed by The Economist [2 panel panel] “Managed well, the data can be used to unlock new sources of economic value, provide fresh insights into science and hold governments to
An archive also can be as a collection of data moved to a repository for backup, to keep separate for compliance reason or for moving off primary storage media. It an include a simple list of files or files organized under a directory or catalog structure(depending on how a particular program supports archiving). Thus, archives apart from being a physical housing units, they are also those special records of enduring value that are deemed fit for permanent preservation. This is for the purposes of research, referencing and for their enduring value .At the same time, based on what I have learn archival also have different meaning by different archivist. There are four archivist that defined the world of archive in different means.For instant, the Adolf Brenneke from German defines the archives as the whole of the papers and documents growing out of legal or business activities of a physical or legal body which are intended for permanent preservation of particular place os a sources and the evidence of the past while the archivist from British which is Sir Hilary Jenkinson defined the archives as documents drawn up or used in the course of an administrative or executive transaction whether it in public or private of which formed a part and subsequently preserve in their own information by the person or persond responsible for that