Many modern civilizations in the west pride themselves on being democratic societies where every person possesses liberty and equality. Every citizen possesses certain rights that cannot be taken away and every citizen is equal under the law; it is upon this foundation that the institutions of modern democracy are built. However, the idea of democracy is not unique to modern societies in the west. In the fifth and fourth centuries BC, the ancient Athenians developed and implemented a democratic government with principles of liberty, equality, and citizenship. Two authors who explore the democracy, liberty, and equality of both Athenian and modern governments are Martin Ostwald and Mogens Hansen. In his essay “Shares and Rights: “Citizenship” …show more content…
Ostwald notes that while the declaration of independence and the 14th amendment consider freedom and equality rights, Aristotle does not feel the same (Ostwald 165). Freedom and equality are qualities that come from the community to which an individual belongs. Unlike the American notion of freedom and equality, where they are considered individual rights to which every citizen is entitled, the ideas of freedom and equality in the Athenian sense come from society, and these rights are shared throughout the community (Ostwald 165). While this difference in the concepts of freedom and equality is derived from the variance in social values, the very foundation of freedom and equality as stated by Aristotle differs from the one stated by the Declaration of Independence. Ostwald says that the Declaration tells citizens that they are equal, and therefore they have liberty (Ostwald 163). However, from Aristotle’s Politics, Ostwald deduces that the relationship between equality and liberty in Athenian democracy is reversed (Ostwald 163). Ostwald concludes that “Freedom is the precondition for equality, not equality for freedom,” a sentiment that reflects the importance of being “free” in Athenian society (163). As the definition of citizen in ancient Athens was quite limited, Aristotle’s treatment of those who deserved equality made sense. Only men who were already free and had reached adulthood were worthy of those deserving equality. For Aristotle, equality was also derived from the ability to serve in government, which only free men could do, and no citizen, as long as he met the requirements of the state, should be discriminated against. This relationship between equality and liberty is the complete opposite of the American and modern version, which places a heavy emphasis on the inherent liberty of humans,
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Upon this realization, Equality denounces the leaders of his society, the Council, on moral terms. “I” believe that his decision to do so is correct as the people in Equality’s society are stripped of their right, and intellectuals are responsible for furthering their society. Equality’s actions parallels
Today, life can be unfair for those people who seek to be free from people who have big power over them. According to Naomi Wolf the author of “Freedom is Intended as a Challenge,” people can get the freedom they want, if they will learn how to extend happiness. In her article she takes Thomas Jefferson declaration and identifies three main points that make many people believe that freedom is
“All Men are created equal,” what did Thomas Jefferson mean by “equal?. Financial. personal, physical, intelligence, what did he mean? A democracy is a government ruled by the people.
Aristotle believed that constitutions were used as ways to organize the citizens within a given city. However, Aristotle did not believe that citizenship was simply determined by the residence of an individual in a city. In fact, he thought that the citizenship of a person should be determined on the share that person plays within the administration of
Firstly, the fundamental argument of Aristotle’s ethics is that his first concern is not the individual;
Principles of a good government have been forming since civilizations have been instituted all around the world. These theories have become traditions and customs of what makes a government run smoothly and effectively. But these principles did not just come about; they were assembled in certain important documents, such as the Magna Carta. These ground rules have branched out into other specific entitlements; no taxation without representation, property rights, rule of law, basic rights, social contract, and due process. The Magna Carta was the first official paper to impose these basic principles of a superior government.
Athenians took pride in the establishment of their democracy built from empowerment, strategic leadership, and loyalty. This is evident in Pericles’ famous speech delivered at a funeral to honor those who have previously died in war. In his speech, Pericles boasts about all the different virtues that make up the great and successful Athenian democracy, declaring that “the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be ours” (2). The citizens of Athens have proven themselves patriotic, courageous, loyal, and honorable- all attributes that cultivated the ultimate political freedom found in their democracy. Impressive how we view and understand this ancient city as the place of origin for equal rights and democratic values that we incorporate in today’s
Analysis The following analysis questions the democratic notions of the ancient citizenship Athens and eventually attempts to clarify the development of democracy and its significant influence in Europe in respect to equality. Ancient Greek founded the democracy in Europe regarding the ideas of freedom and liberty. It is notwithstanding questionable how this civilization originated such notions without considering the relevance of equality: in ancient Athens, likewise in other citizenships around ancient Greece like Sparta, a male dominance is observable; only men at the age of eighteen are considered as part of the citizenship while foreigners, slaves and eventually, women are intentionally segregated from the community.
On the other hand Plato and Aristotle view justice as what is best for the overall parties. Their idea behind this theory is, when all parties are doing their part there is justice. The rights portion of the section is broken down into positive and negative rights, and moral and legal rights. The laws portion of the section is split into two theories; natural
Aristotle also gave the individual the freedom and independency to enjoy the state and what it has to offer him/her. Aristotle also differs from Plato in that he did not establish a strict system for the virtuous city, because he sees that the city system varies according to time and place. But he divided the types of cities into six sections, three of which are virtuous, and three others are opposed to them: Al-Rashad City, which is the government of the righteous individual who is superior to his mind and wisdom. But his rule does not last long. If the state of tyranny is corrupted, it is ruled by an oppressive
In Book IV of Plato’s Republic, Socrates and his peers come to the conclusion that a city is going to need people who have an understanding of what justice should be. Socrates at the end of Book IV can make the difference between individual, political, and social justice. He knows that individual and political justice is so much in common because they both weigh in heavy on truth, honor, and appetitive soul. That appetitive soul is an element that helps the secure the just community with love and support.
Perhaps one of the most important political concepts of the modern age is Democracy. First appearing in ancient Athens, Democracy has now spread across the majority of the globe. In simple terms Democracy can be considered as a rule for the people, by the people, and has reached a status that is almost sacred in modern society. Unfortunately, this status it holds causes people to blind themselves to shortcomings that need to be addressed and deny any need for improvement. However, the turbulent political and economic environment that we live in is forcing us away from comfortable ignorance toward acknowledging that Democracy as we know it may not be the ideal.
He would believe that the aristocracy was given the power and morals in a country, in his beliefs of class such as the gold class would not want to obtain gold or want wealth that they we are pure souls, and that they we’re smarter than the rest of classes and they didn’t believe in what was best for the people with his views on the perfect forms and towards the noble lie being a lie, that they could do what ever they wanted instead of doing what I believe is right for the people as what I believe and wanting the best for people and to help the country, but as he believed in one higher person running the gold class, I believe in a group, he would agree it didn’t matter who it was weather it be female or male or slave I believe the same with my oligarchy system. I think we would agree but disagree with my political views. Aristotle would question my political views because he believed in his four bases that he believed politics are in nature, where he believed men ruled over their women and over their slaves, and their people. He would disagree, having anyone else besides male to rule and only a powerful man could rule instead of anyone from any lifestyle or class as I believe, he did believe in morality, justice, and
The central classifications still used in modern-day literature are that the democracy must have electoral rights, political liberties, and the rule of law (MS, Loc 1131 of 6694). These are foundational ideologies that have remained constant through the
The concept of democracy, which was first developed in Athens, has also had a profound impact on Western political thought and continues