Segmental Features In English Language

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2.0 Literature review 2.1 Segmental features 2.1.1 Monophthongs, diphthongs and triphthongs
There are two types of vowels in English which is short vowels and long vowels. The example symbols of short vowels are ɪ, e, æ, ʌ, ɒ, and ʊ. The difference length of the vowels would be uttered according to the placement of the stress in the word. The central vowel ə is one of the most widely used vowel sounds in the English language and it is expressed the vowel schwa sound in the word. For example, words such as about and perhaps.
Besides, the English long vowels dwell of i:, ɜ:, ɑ:, ɔ: and u:. The mark of two dots [:] to show that it is a long vowel in the English long vowels and it is has certain length in pronouncing the words.
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The first part of the diphthongs is much longer and stronger than the second part. For examples, eɪ, aɪ, ɔɪ, ɪə, eə, əʊ, ʊə and aʊ. Subsequently, the centring diphthong is glide towards the ə (schwa) vowel as to show the symbols. While the closing diphthong is they all end with a glide towards a closer vowel.
The triphthongs are one of the most complexes to articulate and perceive because it can be glide from one vowel to another and then to a final third, and all produced in a swift and uninterrupted manner. There are five triphthongs in the English language which is əʊə, aɪə, eɪə, ɔɪə, and aʊə. Sometimes, the qualities of the vowels in the centre of the triphthongs are affected and are hardly heard. This may lead to confusion to differentiate triphthongs from diphthongs and long
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The consonant sound from the previous word is linked with the following vowel when pronounced. For instance in the phrase wake up - the /k/ in the word ‘wake’ is linked to the initial vowel schwa in ‘up’. Therefore, when pronounced them in a sentence, it would sound similar to wakeup. Another example of linking that we can see is in the phrase turn off where:
We write it like this: turn off
We say it like this: tur noff

2.3.3.5 Intonation
The forms and functions of varying intonation:
Types of tones Forms of tones Function of tones
Fall \ yes \no Falling tone is usually regarded as a neutral tone. It signals of finality in a statement answer where nothing more is said to a question.
Rise /yes /no Rising tone indicates that there are more things to follow in a speech.
Rise-fall ˄yes ˄no Rise-fall tone indicates strong emotions such as approval, disapproval or surprise.
Fall-rise ˅yes ˅no Fall-Rise tone indicates that a person does not completely agree with a statement, or it signifies doubt and hesitation.
Level _yes _no Level tone indicates the definite feeling of uttering something routine, dull or

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