With that, sexual conflict can arise while looking for a mate, initiating a sexual relationship, once the mate-ship has formed, or even so after the mate-ship has ended. With dysfunction, comes co-evolved defences, such as male sexual proprietariness, which is in response to cues that the male receives from his female mate indicating a possible rival or sexual infidelity. This can lead to violence when the man is attempting to gain or regain control in either sexual, or non sexual situations, although it is dependant on the context. Buss and Duntley (2011) mention that even though some tactics to gain control due to adaptive problems involve violence, most of these problems can be solved with many other means of
Sexual harassment in the workplace: Social, Psychological, and Legal Solutions Omar Hasbini Lebanese American University Sexual harassment can be defined as “unwanted conduct of a sexual nature, or other conduct based on sex affecting the dignity of women and men at work. Which include physical verbal and nonverbal conduct (Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC), 2005).” (Hunt, Davidson, Fielden and Hoel, 2010,p.655). To frame the issue, it is documented that sexual harassment appears to affect women more, especially black women (Buchanan et al, 2007), particularly in male-dominated industries (Hunt et al, 2010). A possible reason for why being a black woman increases the chances of being sexually harassed is due to their perceived lower social status in the United States (Buchanan et al, 2007), and building upon this premise we could argue that lower social status could lead to increased risk of sexual harassment in other countries as well. This helps frame the problem and shows that being female and of lower social status are both risk factors.
“Advertising contributes to people’s attitudes about gender, sex, and violence,” states Jean Kilbourne in her article, Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt With advertising agencies standing by the notion that “Sex Sells” it isn’t uncommon to find sex tied into a number of advertisements seen everywhere on a daily basis. “Sex in advertising is pornographic because it dehumanizes and objectifies people, especially women …” (Kilbourne, 271). The objectification of women in our society is more prevalent than many would like to believe. Women being portrayed as passive, easy, innocent, needy, submissive and dependent beings create an understanding that women are less human than men. “Turning a human being into a thing, an object, is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person” (Kilbourne,278).
Sexual harassment has been a huge conflict in numerous companies throughout the years. Sexual harassment is described as unwelcomed sexual behavior that is offensive to the victim. It can include offensive sexual remarks and gestures, or requests for sexual favors. The acts can be portrayed by anyone such as managers, a colleague, or client. It’s a situation that can be uncomfortable and a terrifying experience because it’s not expected, especially in the workplace.
Sexual objectification refers to perceiving and viewing an individual as an object existing only for their sexual gratification (Malik). Sexual objectification of women occurs when their body or body parts are distinguished and separated from her as a person and she is perceived fundamentally as a physical object to fulfill the sexual desire of males (Szymanski, et al.). As the American Psychological Association (APA) outlines, sexual objectification also arises when the value of a person only comes from their sexual behavior or appeal while other features are excluded. However, both men and women have been objectified in different ways, but women’s objectification sexually has shown to be more rampant (Davies). In such cases, the woman is not seen as an individual with the capability of independent decision making and action.
There is disagreement with the statement that prostitution can constitute as rape as some women involved in prostitution have chosen to be in the service, whereas, the people who are forced into this workplace have no control over their own decisions when it comes to the autonomy over their own body. Without question, prostitution entails putting our natural emotions aside in order to have sexual relations in exchange for money. Prostitutes allow their body to be used for sexual actions countless times which is the degrading of oneself for another person’s
Gender based violence is predominantly a male-patterned violence: a prevalent violence committed most often but not always by men and it is often motivated by aggression, revenge, competition, and entitlement. Gender based violence also includes sexual and other violence against women, partners and children. The Centre for Rights Education and Awareness, (2006) viewed Gender Violence as the physical sexual and psychological violation against both men and women, which occurs within the family and the community and is condoned by the government. From the female perspective it can also be defined as violence against women based on women’s lesser status in the society. This includes any act or threat by men or male dominated institutions that is intended to cause physical, sexual or psychological harm to a woman or a girl because of their gender.
Gender (Male/Female) based public harassment is harassment that occurs between strangers in public or semi-public places, is usually directed by men to women, and can be verbal or non- verbal. This form of harassment often has a sexual nature and includes multiple forms of harassing behaviors, such as insults, innuendo, and shouting. It cannot be predicted by age, race, or social class (Gardner, 1995). Street harassment consists of unwanted image, whirling-whistles, get catcalling, other actions by strangers. In public areas that can be unnerving and discomforting.
Those who commit sexual harassment and their victims often know each other well. Harassment can occur between colleagues, supervisors and staff, or between individuals in a position of authority and dependents. Sexual harassment at work has various negative effects on victims and their organizations. Victims of sexual harassment at work suffer from both direct and indirect effects, including health, economic, social, psychological effects and hindered career development. Enterprises and organizations where sexual harassment continually takes place suffer from direct and indirect consequences to their organizations, including reduction in productivity and profit, damage to their reputation, negative impacts on business relationships, loss of human resources
Some defines the harassment is sexual in nature. While other explains it as offensive workplace situations that are based on their class, sexual orientation, language, gazing, sexually suggestive gestures, intimidation and whistling. These types of behavior were not named till 1970s.the women of United States raised voice against these behaviors and demanded that harassment should be recognized as sex discrimination under the