Personality is, "the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person" (pg. 438). In part, it is the behaviors that make us unique and set us apart from one another. It is also, what drives us to act consistently in a variety of settings. There are few different theories and approaches to understanding on personality and personality traits and why we behave the way we do Psychoanalytic theory is, Freud 's theory that, "unconscious forces act as determinants of personality" (pg.
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY The word psychodynamic means to a large group of theories that affects the It is a way that tells that personality of the mind exists in the conscious, subconscious and unconscious states like the unconscious wishes, feelings and thoughts. This theory is presented by Sigmund Freud in which he mentions that personality contains three components which are the id, the ego and the superego. These all work collaboratively in order to make complex human behaviours. Id is associated with the way of thinking or the natural ability and the crave for pleasure. Ego is associated with the intervene in the agreement among them with the need of the reality.
Skepticism, once again, would bring forth new theories that would leave individuals to never ending ponder. Sigmund Freud, the father of Psychoanalysis, was a well-known psychiatrist and neurologist during his time who was known for his influential theory of the unconscious mind. He believed that we are “humans governed by powerful, independent unconscious forces” (Davis, 2018). In one of his writings entitled, Some Elementary Lessons in Psychoanalysis, he goes on to explain a case involving his patient being hypnotized and completing a task that was ordered to him during his unconscious state. The idea Freud is trying to pinpoint is that, “We commonly fabricate reasons for our choices or deeds – reasons that conceal, not reveal, the underlying causes of our decisions or activities.” (Sigmund Freud, The Unconscious and Myth of Reason) To counteract this idea, “Enlightenment philosophers saw reason as having an equalizing effect on humanity, because everyone's thoughts and behavior would be guided by reason.
Bandura (1961) conduct Bobo Doll experiment to prove that children can learned behaviour through observation. He want to prove that aggressive behaviour of a child can be learned by watching an adult with aggressive behaviour. Bandura, Ross and Ross ( 1961) had conducted an experiment to support the social learning theory. Total of 72 children ( 36 boys and 36 girls) aged between 3 to 6 years old from the Stanford University Nursery School are selected as participants. Pre-tested were conducted by two researcher.
Bandura, on the contrary, found that people learn their behaviour through the observation of others. He founded this theory with the Bobo doll experiment. Three group of children watched a video of an adult bullying a doll. Every group watched a video with a different ending. In the first video the adult was rewarded for his behaviour, in the second he was punished and in the last video there were no consequences.
Anatomically Detailed (AD) dolls were suggested by Boat and Everson (1986) as a memory aid to interviewing young children to recollect their experience of abuse. Though helpful, this method cannot definitely prove whether abuse took place or not. These dolls were also used in the Wee Care School and this method can support the investigations but cannot conclusively prove if abuse occurred. A comprehensive interview technique was developed by Raskin and Esplin in 1991, known as “Statement Validity Analysis" (SVA). The interview is conducted in three stages.
The therapist should identify and explain the meaning of the behaviour. In dream interpretation, Freud’s theory states that in our unconscious, we store our desires and express our desires in our dreams to protect our conscious mind from disturbing thoughts and urges. Dream interpretation is now more popular even though researches have not found out a purpose for having dreams. Analysis of transference is a transfer of feelings from an individual to another in
The psychodynamic approach to leadership has its roots in Sigmund Freud´s (1938).Emotionally disturbed individuals and psychological theories of personality development form the basis of psychodynamic approach. One branch of psychodynamic theory is called psychohistory, which attempts to explain the behaviour of famous historical figures (in text citation Kets de Vries 1999). This approach gives importance making leader obtain good understanding on personality of oneself and to give importance and also encourages the group members to understand their personalities. This makes the team members to understand their reactions to the leader and each other. Important concepts in psychodynamic approach to leadership include e.g.
(Freud, 1949) Help is provided to the clients to enable them strengthen their EGO and protect it from being in any conflict between their ID and SUPEREGO. This theory is used to rectify the client’s character and their system of personality if found to have issues. The theory aims at making the unconscious, conscious by releasing the repressed emotions and experiences. Psychoanalytic theory also aims at helping clients work through their developmental stages not previously resolved well to solve the problem of
Sigmund Freud is Psychology’s most famous psychoanalysis. His work and theories have helped shape our views of personality, levels of consciousness and unconsciousness mind, the structure of personality and the development of personality. There are three aspects to Freud’s theory of personality structure and fives stages through the psychosexual development. The psyche The first aspect is the psyche which is structured into three, the id, ego and superego, all develops at different stages in our lives. The id is an important unconscious structure that contains basic instinctual drives when we are born.