Joints allow movement in the human body. The bones forming the joint are held together by ligaments. The 3 types of joints fibrous or immovable an example would be the skull. Cartilaginous or slightly moveable an example would be the vertebrae. Synovial or freely movable would include, ball and socket for example the hip.
The appendicular skeleton includes the arms, hands legs, the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle. Of the 206 bones in the human body 126 of these make up the appendicular skeleton. Due to the appendicular bones being found in the hands, arms and legs they allow more movement than possible with the axial skeleton found at the core. Types of bones: Long bones are some of not only the longest bones but also the shortest bones in the body, the longer bones include; the femur, humorous and tibia. Then the small bones include; the metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges.
Cortical bones, also known as compact bones, form the hard-external layer of all bones that helps protect and strengthen the medullary cavity, which is filled with bone marrow. Within the cortical bones are lamellae called osteons. Osteons are aligned in the same direction along lines of stress, which hold the bone’s blood vessels and nerve fibers. These bones primarily help to resist bending and fracturing. Trabecular bones, also known as spongy bones, form the inner layer of all bones that helps to reduce the density of bones allowing the ends of long bones to compress when subject to stress.
The synovial joints between the superior and inferior articular processes on adjacent vertebrae are termed the facet joints (also known as zygapophysial joints or Z-joints ). They permit simple gliding movements. The movement of the lumbar spine is largely confined to flexion and extension with a minor degree of rotation (see the image below). The region between the superior articular process and the lamina is the pars interarticularis. A spondylolysis occurs if ossification of the pars interarticularis fails to occur.
The rearfoot consists of four bones the distal side of the tibia and fibula (leg bones), the calcaneus (heel bone), and the talus. The plantar fascia originates from the medial calcaneal ligaments, dividing into a medial, central and lateral band that attaches to the superior surface of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi musculature, respectively. The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot aids in distributing the force attributed to the weight bearing. The MLA of the foot resembles two rods a rear rod consisting of the calcaneus, talus and an anterior rod consisting of the navicular, three cuneiforms, and the first three metatarsals. These rods are connected at their base by the plantar fascia.
Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by a bundle of collagen fibers. The Skeletal System is what helps the muscular system move with the muscles being attached to the bone allowing it to move the arms, legs, etc. It is the structure of the organism. There are several different types of skeletal systems
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column.
Skin word arrives from Latin word cutis. It is the peripheral covering of vertebrates and the largest organ of the body with almost 20 square feet area. Skin is mainly comprise of epithelial, mesenchymal, glandular and neurovascular components. It protects us from microbes as first line of defense, helps to maintain homeostasis and allows the sensation of touch, heat and cold. 1.2.
The lower end of the humerus has two rounded knobs the lateral and medial condyles. Between the two of these is a hole that extends completely through the bone, this is called the supratrochlear foramen. The ulna and radius act as one bone and are held together firmly by ligaments and always move together. The upper end of the ulna has a hook like process that fits perfectly in the supratrochlear foramen of the humerus. On the ulna there is a ridge called the trochlear notch, this fits against and rotates between the medial and lateral condyles on the humerus.
The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement). UPPER LIMBS (consists of upper arm, forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers that all work together for movement and function of your arm). PELVIC GIRDLE (two large hip bones that provide support for the attachment
Synergist muscles also help to create the movement. In the bicep curl the synergist muscles are the brachioradialis and brachialis which assist the biceps to create the movement and stabilise the elbow joint Type of contraction Concentric Contraction From the Sport and PE book by Kevin Wesson, Nesta Wiggins-James, Graham Thompson and Sue Hartigan I have gained some extra information on concentric contraction. Within the book it explains that this type of contraction involves the muscle shortening while contracting.
A motor unit consists of one motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it stimulates (Deschenes, 1989). Muscle fibers are the cells or basic building block of the muscle. There are a few different types of muscle fiber, each designed for a specific type of muscle activity. Some muscle fibers are good for endurance exercises, and others work best for the short bursts of strength exercises. The three muscle fibers are Type 1: Slow twitch,
They include the osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and osteoprogenitor bone cells. These cells make up bone tissue, which forms bones, which make up the bones of the human skeletal system. These cells all have different shapes and structures, but also different functions. These bone cells are very helpful and important, but can go wrong when they age and become more used and