The Musculoskeletal System The Musculoskeletal system is made up of muscle, bones, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, nerves and other connective tissues. The main purpose is to support and stabilise the body. The bones work together with the muscles to allow controlled movement and to keep the body’s shape. The bones of the body provide five main functions they are to produce blood cells (white and red), protect body organs (brain, lungs), provided leverage and movement (so we can sit up), and store lipids and minerals (calcium) and to provide structural support for the body: (A support framework for soft tissue and organs). The main function of the Muscular system is movement.
The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally. Distally, the bones are connected by a wrist capsule, radio-ulnar stabilizing ligaments (dorsal and volar) and a fibrocartilage articular disk (triangular fibrocartilage compex, TFCC) (). There is an interosseus membrane
This joint lies beneath the talus, where the posterior calcaneal facet on the talus articulates with the posterior facet on the superior aspect of the calcaneus. The Subtalar joint is a gliding joint, with the 2 bones held together by an articular capsule and by anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, and interosseus talocalcaneal ligaments. Subtalar inversion and eversion occur at this articulation. (6) The relation of the tibia, fibula, and talus is maintained by an articular capsule and 3 groups of ligaments (medial, lateral, and syndesmosis).
Introduction AS the only synovial joint of the spine, facet joint plays a significant role in maintaining the stability of the spine for resistance to shear and rotational forces and bearing 33% of the dynamic load and 35% of the static load of the spine as biomechanical studies have pointed out .Therefore, guiding and restricting the motion of the spine is the main function of facet joint. Some features of facet joints such as sagittal facet joint angles（FJA）and tropism (the asymmetries of facet joint) have been reported in previous literature being associated with the occurrence of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis(DLS) [4,5]、degenerative disc disease(DDD) [6,7]、facet joint osteoarthritis So far, many articles have pointed
The hip joint is the attachment between the hind limb and the axial skeleton. The pelvis girdle consists of two identical hipbones that ventrally meet at the pelvic symphysis. Dorsally they articulate with the sacrum. Each hipbone consists of the ilium, pubis and ischium that have different ossification centers. In adults, these bones are completely fused and their bodies form the cavity for the articulation with the femur, the acetabulum (8).
Smooth muscles are tissues that line hollow organs for example blood vessels and digestive tracts. They are flexible and can contract. The flexibility of the smooth muscle helps fit the tubes in tight spaces. In addition it contracts, so that the material gets a push in order to reach the designated location quicker. Without the smooth muscle the material will be less efficient to move in the
Stability of the ankle mortise is enhanced because the talus has dome shaped body fits snugly into the slightly concave tibial undersurface. The relation of the tibia, fibula, and talus is maintained by an articular capsule and 3 groups of ligaments (medial, lateral,and syndesmosis). Tibiofibular Syndesmosis: The articulation between the tibia and fibula can be divided into three zones: the proximal tibiofibular joint, the interosseous membrane and the distal tibiofibular joint or distal tibiofibula syndesmosis. The proximal tibiofibular syndesmotic joint stabiliezed by posterior superior tibiofibular and anterior superior tibiofibular ligaments, this
Bones are living tissue. They have their own blood vessels which help them to growth. There are two types of bone tissues which are a hard outer layer called cortical and spongy inner layer called trabecular. The spongy bone consists of an open network that looks like air sacs. Spongy bone is much lighter than compact bone.
File one Summary: Skeletal muscles are made out of striated subunits called sarcomeres, which are made out of the myofilaments actin and myosin. Skeletal muscles contain myofibrils. Every myofibril is striated with dull and light bands. I bands contain just thin fibers, made fundamentally out of actin. Myosin cross bridges stretches out from the thick fibers to re slim fibers.