The Mongols were a powerful people from what is now present day Mongolia, however what they are most notable for their horrifically violent military campaigns. During the time of the Mongol empire from 1206 to 1364 c.a., they committed many atrocities actions and throughout history they have been accused of being barbarians. However, despite their actions the Mongols were not barbarians as they exhibited an organized military, and advanced culture organized by a well developed system of laws.
The Qing, Mughal and Ottoman empires all had effective administration and victories that allowed them to advance. The Manchu, who ruled the Qing Dynasty, had to assert dominance to control the Chinese people living in the empire, who vastly outnumbered them. They successfully reoriented China after the rocky transfer of power following the previous empire, the Ming. The Manchu had “knowledge of Chinese administration” and a “well organized army” (Bingham, 134), which helped them effectively rule. They made Chinese men shave the front of their heads and wear their hair in long queues, or pony tails (Bingham, 136)” to show control. They made sure Manchu warriors didn’t lose their fighting edge in battle, which was a large part of their identity.
The Yuan Dynasty under the Mongol empire has an extensive amount of public works as they built granaries to protect the dynasty from famine, and created large road and water networks. These public works allowed for the people to have large surplus of food and water and also be able to travel in a more organized manner with the road system created (New World Encyclopedia, Country Studies). Everyone in the Yuan dynasty had access to these public works as they were used to the economy and to keep everyone fed. While having these very useful public works the Yuan dynasty also had lots of techniques using technology for warfare and engineering. While using new warfare technology from the Chinese the Yuan were able to create a strategy to take down fortification by studying the way forts were made. The Yuan also discovered purified saltpetre, gunpowder bombs, printing techniques, porcelain, playing cards and medical literature the Yuan leaders were lazy
China’s rulers utilized the mandate of heaven, a type of divine rule that, later, would be used to justify the rule of kings like Louis XIV of France and Charles the I of England. The mandate of heaven was an ideal that the gods they worshipped gave power to their rulers, and if they weren’t satisfied, they would show it in the form of unexplainable phenomenon, such as the grasshopper plagues and floods that ravaged their lands. Catastrophes like that lead the people of Han China into doubting the rulers, and some even predicted that the Han dynasty would be usurped soon. A number of rebellions cropped up around this time, like the Yellow Turban/Scarves Rebellion, which began to threaten the hold of the government and the rulers
The Great Wall was made by the Qin and Han dynasty's to keep out invaders and other enemies. The benefits did outweigh the cost because it kept your city protected, it was harder for invaders to attack.They also put troops in the frontier areas of the Wall to increase the security level.According to document A it states that "the government will construct walled cities, well protected by high walls, deep moats, catapults, and thorns." This shows that the Qin and Han wanted to make it harder for the mongols to attack and that china wanted to be prepared for when other dangerous situations happen.Another thing the Qin and Han dynasties made was to impress
Chapter five titled “Mercury” of The Poisoner’s Handbook by Deborah Blum gives a fascinating story, about a woman named Gertie Gorman who was married to a man named Charles Webb. Many believed that her husband poisoned her because in her will “[she would leave] everything to her husband” (112) giving him a good motive for that action, but as the investigators opened up the body they found the presence of mercury bichloride, which was a “messy killer” (114) meaning it was hard to miss because of all the bloody inflammations. As the investigators looked more into the case they found out that Webb was not the person responsible for his wife’s death, however Webb was still prosecuted. Mercury can be poisonous if taken in extreme quantities causing the same things it did to Gertie’s body.
The new themes of encounter and exchange did not come without the warfare, violence and confusion that plagued China as the Sung dynasty struggled to fight back against the Mongols. After the suicide of the last Southern Sung emperor, all of China was united by Mongol rule (Gernet 717). The tragic death of one man marked the beginning of a new era. For the first time ever, foreign people conquered the entirety of China. Never before had the Chinese government been completely replaced by an unknown system ruled by outsiders (Fitzgerald 181). The grandiose dynasty created by Kublai Khan was one of the best in the 13th century. As Marco Polo described it, “I repeat that everything appertaining to this city is on so vast a scale, and the Great
The Mongols were nomadic people who lived off of meat, horse hide, and milk. Genghis Khan’s leadership was the awakening of the Mongol success. Under the guidance of the Great Khan, the Mongol empire thrived and expanded. After the death of Genghis Khan, his descendents had kept the Mongol reputation standing. The Mongol impact on the 13th and 14th century world affected many people and civilization which helped prove that they were not the savage and evil barbarians that people thought they were; but instead the Mongols were the reason that the Mongol empire thrived as seen through their culture, battle, and travelers.
The Mongols, one of the fiercest and most savage groups of humans to ever exist. The 13th century was home to this group of people, who resided in the grasslands of central Asia. The Mongols were illiterate warriors, who depended on horses as a means of travel. Although being illiterate, the Mongols are said to be one of the most ferocious peoples, conquering more than four million square miles of land. The Mongols were, undoubtedly, overwhelmingly barbaric. This is seen through their actions, and way of life.
Many things effected the classical ages. The five classical ages being compared and contrasted are Greece, Rome, Han China, Gupta India, and Olmec. The size of territory and religion effected the legacy. Each age was impacted on either mathematical and scientific theories or their practical technology. Most classical ages had monumental buildings or important things. Each classical age is unique in its own way.
In historian Jared Diamond’s book and film Guns, Germs and Steel, he attempts to explain why some parts of the world are more economically sound than others. The facts Diamond delves into extend back thousands of years. Some civilizations had what Diamond referred to as “geographic luck”, meaning that some lands were situated in an environment better suited for agriculture and other resource gathering. Other civilizations were also unable to domesticate animals that would have made farming and living on the land easier. Domesticated animals provided milk, fur, meat, as well as the ability to feed off leftover crop beds and create dung to fertilize future crops. Jared Diamond’s main argument is that indigenous peoples did not lack ingenuity, but did lack the geographic luck of other territories.
Because the architecture was advancing with new materials and building designs, modern-day China now has some temples and houses built in a more modernized style derived from the styles commonplace in the Tang & Song Dynasty. As a result of the Civil Service Exam, there is now an entrance exam taken in China that determines what college you will go to. As the original exam determined where you would rank in the government, the entrance exam determined what subject, college and education level you would get. And finally, from the marvelous inventions that flourished throughout China, they are now used commonly today. For example, the mechanical clock is now a daily household item, serving as a daily reminder for the time. Porcelain is now used in kitchenware and dollhouse sets, as well as some home appliances. These three main factors show that the Tang & Song Dynasties were, in fact, a Golden Age because not only did they heavily impact future generations, but it marked China as one of the most progressive civilizations of all
The Enlightenment was a movement that shunned superstition and was more in favor with a scientific explanation of the world. The Enlightenment was also known as the Age of Reason or Age of Enlightenment. It started in Europe and America around the 17th and 18th centuries. The Enlightenment was about people who used their critical thinking skills to argue knowledge, education, politics, religion, and art. The enlightenment produced an increased number of inventions, books, scientific findings, political laws, and revolutions.
The early Ming Dynasty was a period of cultural restoration and expansion. Under a series of strong rulers, China extended its rule into Mongolia and Central Asia. The Ming even briefly conquered Vietnam, which after a thousand years of Chinese rule had reclaimed its independence following the collapse of the Tang dynasty in the tenth century”(Duiker 336) .The Ming dynasty also known as the Empire of the Great Ming was described as of the greatest and famous eras that bought stability in human history. Emperor Hongwu born Zhu Yuanzhang (1368 -1398) was the founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China despite his lowly birth as the son of a hired laborer from one of the poorest parts of China”(Menzies 45). In the middle of the 14th century, with famine, plagues, and peasant revolts sweeping across China, Zhu Yuanzhang rose to command the force