Plant tissue culture provides major (macro), minor (micro), carbon source (sucrose) and trace amounts of organic additives vitamins, agar, and plant growth regulators (George et al., 2008). But , better understanding of the nutritional requirements of cultured cells and tissues can help to choose the most appropriate culture medium for the explants used because each variety, even explants at different parts requires different types of nutrition (Loyola-vargas, 2012). Among the media formulations, MS mediums are commonly used for most plant species and have high macronutrients. 3.1. Plant growth
Describe how you would clone a plant using plant micropropagation techniques Micropropagation is a method of plant propagation using extremely small pieces of plant tissue taken from a carefully chosen and prepared mother plant and growing these under laboratory conditions to produce new plants. The segments of plant tissue culture used for micropropagation are called explants. The stem, root, leaf, flower, ovule, cotyledon, or hypocotyl are usually used for the micropropagation process. Micropropagation has a very high multiplication rate although it only requires a very small amount of plant tissue. This is extremely valuable in the case that only limited tissue is available.
Over time, progenitor cells move out of the tissue onto the surface of the dish. These primary cells can then be further spread and shift into fresh dishes through micropropagation. Explant culture can also refer to the culturing of the tissue pieces themselves, where cells are left in their enclosing extracellular matrix to more precisely mimic the in vivo environment e.g. cartilage explant culture, or blastocyst implant culture. The scientist who have struggle to recover pathogen-free plants through tissue culture techniques have instinctively pattern the explants required to take up cultures as ‘shoot-tip', ‘tip-meristem' and ‘meristem-tip'.
A clump of 2-3 shoots were subcultured to the different culture vessels containing optimized shoot multiplication medium [MMS medium + BAP (0.25 mg l-1) + Kn (0.25 mg l-1) + 2iP (0.25 mg l-1) + additives + AC (100 mg l-1)]. Observations, based on morphology, number and length of in vitro raised shoots, were recorded after 15–17
People may have varied views about tissue culture beef because it is grown in the lab. One of the main challenges would be associated with the view that eating tissue culture beef involves overt scientific involvement in the food production (Moon & Balasubramanian,
Sugarcane is cultivated in area of more than 60,000 Ha in Iran. Sugar cane is being cultivated in south of Iran where more than 5 mills are working to extract sugar cane for Sugar. The yield per hectare is unknown due to no reliable data, but efforts will be made to get the reliable data. Sugar cane industry in Iran is not mature and due to lack of knowledge for cane in Iran, it is going down every year. Many studies have been conducted to find the possibility of growing sugar cane profitably.
Plant tissue culture is found to be an attractive alternative approach for production of desirable medicinal compounds, primary and secondary metabolites (Rao and Ravishankar, 2002). Trigonella foenum graecum Trigonella foenum graecum plant is commonly known as methi. Historically, fenugreek was used for a variety of health conditions, including menopausal symptoms and digestive problems. It was also used for inducing childbirth. The dried seeds are ground and taken by mouth or used to form a paste that is applied to the skin.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the problem About 62% of sugar in the world is produced from sugarcane while sugar beets accounts for 38%, (Wada et al., 2006). Sugarcane is also a source of bio-fuel. According to Litch (2008), Brazil produce ethanol which it exports to other countries such as United States of America, Sweden, Japan, among others. According to Kenya sugar industry strategic plan 2010-2014, the sugar industry is a major contributor to the agricultural sector which is the mainstay of the economy and supports livelihoods of at least 25% of the Kenyan population.
Introduction: Tissue culture of plant tissues is a method that has a wide variety of applications, including micropropagation, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and callus culture. The practice of tissue culture is used by different industries, such as the horticultural, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries. Callus and suspension cultures have been used to produce secondary products that have medicinal properties or other uses such as natural flavors or dyes in a sterile environment. Callus cultures are also initiated for analytic and quantitative comparative studies of secondary metabolites synthesis between the intact plant material and callus extracts [1-4]. Usually, an equal ratio of auxins and cytokinins will give the desired effect, but each species will require its own specific combination of concentrations.
This makes the farmers to suffer financial problems which contribute to their withdrawal from sugarcane farming. According to Kenya sugar industry strategic plan 2010-2014, consumption of sugar in Kenya outstripped its production between the years 1984-2008. Although the production rose from 368,970 tonnes in 1984 to 520,000 tonnes in 2008, its consumption also increased leaving Kenya a net importer of sugar with imports rising from 4,000 tonnes to 220,000 tonnes during the period. The deficit is made by importing from Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and other sugar producing countries like Brazil, United Kingdom and Mexico. Although the above studies have been done in different places and show that there are a number of challenges that face sugarcane farming, there is a need to establish whether there are factors influencing the decrease of the quantity of sugarcane supplied to Nzoia Sugar Company in Kanduyi sub-county,