1-35). Prentice Hall: http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/4173/4273671/Ch01.pdf. Buzzy, G. (2011). Presentation: Criminal Justice Introduction. Lynchburg, VA, USA.
In: Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ, editors. Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors [Internet]. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006 [cited 2015 Nov 8]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11817/ 4. Math S, Srinivasaraju R. Indian Psychiatric epidemiological studies: Learning from the past.
2012, pp. 167-177. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.2011.02040.x. Hinkle, Joshua C. and David Weisburd. "The Irony of Broken Windows Policing: A Micro-Place Study of the Relationship between Disorder, Focused Police Crackdowns and Fear of Crime."
According to Stop and Frisk (A Case Study in Judicial Control of the Police) by Herman Schwartz, " the power to search, the New York "stop and frisk" statutes provides temporary questioning of a person in public places search for a weapon"(434). An officer has the right to stop an individual in public if he has a reasonable doubt of suspicion to temporary stop and frisks the individual. The statistic has shown that many officers have targeted the minorities in the stop and frisk. According to An Analysis of the NYPD 's stop and frisk policy in the context of the claim of racial bias by Andrew Gelman, Jeffrey Fagan, Alex Kiss " the number of arrests of each group in the previous year black were stopped 23% and Hispanics 39% more often than whites"(19). Minorities are stopped twice as often for violent crimes and a
Hays, Z. R. (2011). Police use of excessive force in disorganized neighborhoods. El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC. In the book written by Hays (2011), the problem of police targeting disadvantaged neighborhoods is discussed. The author expands his explanations with various sociological theories.
United States, 2003. Print. Professor Liqun Cao researched the problems of police brutality at a national level in “Curbing Police Brutality”. The analysis was provided by the Department of Defense. Cao main focus is to “establish the baseline correlation of citizen complaint rates with various police organizational factors, and to identify the causal effect of police brutality” (n.p.).