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(1997). Regulating police discretion: An assessment of the impact of the NSW Young Offenders Act 1997. Criminal Law Journal, 28(2), pp.72-92. Retrieved from Westlaw. Code Of Conduct And Ethics (n.d.).
Mandal, P. B. (2011). Sociology of Crime. Centrum Press Reiman, J. (2007). The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison: Ideology, Class and Criminal Justice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Structural Equation Models With Unobserved Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics? Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 3 Agosto. 1981, 382-388 L?pez-Calva, L. F. (2001). ? Child labor: Myths, theories and facts?. Journal of International Affairs, 55, 59-73.
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"The Irony of Broken Windows Policing: A Micro-Place Study of the Relationship between Disorder, Focused Police Crackdowns and Fear of Crime." Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 36, no. 6, Nov. 2008, pp. 503-512. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2008.09.010. Johnson, Suzanne B. and Page L. Anderson. "
An officer has the right to stop an individual in public if he has a reasonable doubt of suspicion to temporary stop and frisks the individual. The statistic has shown that many officers have targeted the minorities in the stop and frisk. According to An Analysis of the NYPD 's stop and frisk policy in the context of the claim of racial bias by Andrew Gelman, Jeffrey Fagan, Alex Kiss " the number of arrests of each group in the previous year black were stopped 23% and Hispanics 39% more often than whites"(19). Minorities are stopped twice as often for violent crimes and a
Hays, Z. R. (2011). Police use of excessive force in disorganized neighborhoods. El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC. In the book written by Hays (2011), the problem of police targeting disadvantaged neighborhoods is discussed.
Accessed October 22, 2016. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20045621. Katzenstein, Peter J., and Robert O. Keohane. "Varieties of Anti-Americanism." FrontPage Magazine.
United States, 2003. Print. Professor Liqun Cao researched the problems of police brutality at a national level in “Curbing Police Brutality”. The analysis was provided by the Department of Defense.
The Broken window policing- when a cop wants to illegally enters and searches a residence he breaking the window policing. This gives him probable cause to investigate and any evidence he turns up becomes miraculously legal. The broken window policing is also addressing the small piddling staff like broken windows, graffiti, trash, panhandlers, and it sends a message that the police, city, and neighbors care and is paying attention to their neighborhood. Hotspots is an effective crime reduction strategy. It’s an Evidence-Based Policing Matrix and in the U.S. DOJ’s Crime Solutions what work clearinghouse.
There are also criticism to how the police will regulate anti-gang loiter laws without having to fall into racial profiling. The police without anti-gang loitering laws are already demonized in some communities; this ordinance will definitely not make their relationship better. The relationship between the police and lower income communities is a basis of concern for the development of anti-gang ordinances. The role of the police is to be authoritative to follow the “broken window theory” and manage to have full control of both small crimes to control larger crime. The broken window theory played a role in the Chicago anti-gang loiter laws as stated in Dorothy E. Roberts article, “Foreword: Race, Vagueness, and the Social Meaning of Order-Maintenance Policing” she states, “The city cited this theory [broken window theory]…because when
From the perspective of the Panther Party, the utilization of systemic racism in America, allows those in power (“White pigs”) to place those with ethnic differences (Blacks) in a perpetual state of oppression. Thus, It is true what Feagin states in his text, Racist America, that systemic racism involves the unjustly gained economic and political power of whites, and white- racist ideologies, attitudes, and institutions that are created to preserve White advantages and power (Feagin, 2000, p. 16). So in this light, one can accurately say that the Panthers saw America as a “total racist polity” in which every aspect of life is shaped to some degree by racist truths. With that being said, the Panthers viewed America in the following ways: As a polity that suppresses the political, social, and economic rights of its citizens, (Blacks) as a polity