Unethical Research Issues

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Research is a systematic investigation aimed at the discovery of answers to a problem (Burns, 2000).Research has been conducted for a number of reasons (Adams, Khan and Raeside, 2014). Bornmann (2012) states that researches have impacted on society both positively and negatively. Yet research contribute to science, it is difficult to measure contribution to society (Bornmann, 2012). For health and social care environment, research is a fundamental way of obtaining evidence for the purpose of solving health care problems and considering health issues (Polgar & Thomas, 2013) and discover new knowledge that could lead to changes to health treatments, politicise or care which could be more effective than existing way (NHS, 2017).
In nursing discipline, …show more content…

The most dreadful unethical was possibly conducted by Nazi and in order to prevent recurrence of such episodes, the Nuremberg code was addressed in German (Avasthi, et al., 2013). It was the first international code for ethics in clinical research and stressed voluntary consent and banned experiments could result in major injury or death (Emanuel, et al., 2008). Then Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association (WMA) was stated (Avasthi, et al., 2013). It has 32 principles and mainly stresses informed consent, confidentiality of data, vulnerable population, and requirement of a protocol, including the scientific reasons of the study, to be reviewed by the ethics committee (Avasthi, et al., 2013; WMA, 2018). Another main code is the Belmont Report and this emphasize respect for persons, beneficence and Justice (Sims, …show more content…

In detail of ethics, a key ethics is informed consent and self-determination. Research participants must be fully informed about the procedure, the purposes of the research, and the risks which are associated with the research and must give their consent to participate (WMA, 2008; WHO, 2011; Polgar & Thomas, 2013). Another key ethics is confidentiality and right to privacy. This principle is concerned with ensuring that people’s private information is not disclosed as a result of their participation in the study (WMA, 2008; WHO, 2011; Polgar and Thomas, 2013).Other key is minimizing risk and harm to participants. All risks have to be minimized and participant is fully aware of such risks before they have agreed to participate (WMA, 2008; WHO, 2011; Polgar and Thomas, 2013).Other key is scientific excellence and quality. Most research committees take the view that the proposed research has to be of high scientific quality and address research questions that have not already been answered (Polgar and Thomas,

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