A new divide in art and religion occurred during the 17th century. The Reformation occurred and caused a major divide between Protestants and Catholics. In northern Europe, Protestantism took root, especially in the city of Amsterdam. In southern Europe, Catholicism stood fast, especially in Rome. In this paper I will argue that Amsterdam and Rome developed unique political and religious environments that created two different painting styles within the Baroque period. These different environments led to two very different subject materials: secular in Amsterdam and non-secular in Rome. Despite some similarities, these differences distinctly separate Protestant Baroque in the north of Europe and Counter-Reformation Baroque in the south of Europe and two paintings can accurately portray these differences and similarities: “The Calling of Saint Matthew” by Caravaggio and “The Art of Painting” by Vermeer.
In the “Elizabethan Era” most people cared about their appearance. They would carry mirrors, combs, ear scoops, and bone manicure sets. Pale skin and dark eyebrows were a big part of the bizarre trend in the Elizabethan Era. Women would do anything to achieve pale skin. Not only was pale skin popular so was having long fair colored hair. They wore extravagant makeup and even though they put harmful things on their face they took very good care of it at the end of the day. Few of the trends they used back then are still around.
Christ with the Symbols of the Passion is a work by Italian painter Lavinia Fontana, its medium is oil on panel and it was executed on 1576. In this piece we see, what seems to be, Christ after he was brought down from the cross. He is sitting at the center of the piece with multiple angels besides him. The color palette seems dark and obscure as well as the overall mood of the piece. He is surrounded by symbols that are significant to the process of His crucifixion such as the cross, the crown of thorns, a whip, and is also surrounded by three angels. This painting is an accurate representation of Italian Mannerist style, and has all the characteristics that defines it as so.
The Baroque period was identified as the “Age of Absolutism” because it was a period where rulers practiced their full power to control subjects. Also during the Baroque time frame music became more leant about where it was played. Instead it only being played at churches and occasionally in some courts, it was being played at specific functions and operas. It was at this time that operas were established for the first time in history. Musicians at this time were employed for aristocrat’s courts, churches and operas although they were considered high positions yet still viewed as servants. Some characteristics of Baroque music focused on the unity of mood, rhythm, dynamics and melodies. As for texture it consisted of being polyphonic with an emphasis on the highest and lowest melodies. Also the importance of bass and soprano and imitation were present. Word painting and symbolism kept making an appearance too. Chords and basso continuo were key elements to this period. A basso continuo is an accompaniment made up of bass parts usually played by two instruments. It was here that baroque orchestras started to gather which contained about ten to forty musicians. Through
The Renaissance and Baroque periods of music are two very similar and different eras. The Renaissance which began after the end of the Middle Ages in 1450 and ended the beginning of the 1600s, this is where the Baroque period starts. The beginning of the Renaissance period was compromised of sacred and religious music cultivating from the middle ages. Before the Renaissance period music had to be copied and re-written by hand, which was a very difficult task to do continuously. During the Renaissance period however, printing was invented, which made producing music easier and also changed a lot of other things in other areas. The Baroque period on the other hand, spanning 150 years from the beginning of the 1600s to 1750, was divided into three parts: The Early Baroque period, The Middle Baroque period and The Late Baroque period. While these two eras start right after each other, there are a lot of differences between them, this shows how much music can evolve through time.
It hosted a number of new styles and and thought process that was also not just for the rich, but the middle class. It experienced more of an emotionalism and was a psychological exploration not just by the artist but the viewers themselves (Detrick “Baroque”). A photographer today uses still lifes that really justify the baroque style of art that was dark and deformed. Tara Sellios uses her art to “lure unsuspecting viewers into her twisted Baroque still lifes” (huffingtonpost.com). The eleven contemporary stills i looked at by her were pretty messed up stuff. It was dark and full of death with a hint of life. It really showed the bizarre art work style of Baroque that explores the dark side of
The Baroque period covers one hundred and fifty years from 1600 to 1750. Its characteristics tend to include, lavish, over the top, expensive and much more then necessary. The period is painted literally with architecture, paintings, clothing, food and much more that continuously begs people of today to ask ‘why?’. The use of frill and extravagance in art in this period has become less of a question of ‘why’ and more of a question ‘where is the extra?’, because this part in history is centered around adding extra ornamentation to everything. With such an over the top part in history, it would seem impossible to pick one piece that could embody every aspect of the Baroque Era but it is to be proven that one piece has such potential. Gian Lerenzo Bernini’s, The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, sculpted in 1647 to 1652. The piece is of Saint Teresa being struck by an Angel’s
Judith and her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, by Orazio Gentileschi, is a 17th-century oil painting located in the Wadsworth Museum of Art. The painting depicts the moment after the biblical heroine, Judith, kills an invading Assyrian general, Holofernes, to save the city of Bethulia. Judith agrees to dine with Holofernes in the privacy of his tent and after taking advantage of his drunkenness she beheads him with his own sword (Branch). Gentileschi shows Judith and her maidservant, Abra, quickly escaping the scene with the decapitated head and sword cradled between them in a woven basket. The maidservant, dressed in a white headdress and blue gown, is in the process
Because the Medici family played a major role in Florentine Renaissance, it is difficult to fully understand the family’s relevance without having basic knowledge on Florence and the Renaissance. After the chaos in Europe that consisted of several factors including the Great Schism and the Bubonic Plague, European life was given a light and resurrection of culture and spirit in a period we now know was the Renaissance; to the Italians la Rinascita, Rebirth. Will Durant wrote in The Renaissance: The Story of Civilization V, “The sunshine of the Italian spirit would break through the northern mists; men and women would escape from the prison of medieval fear; they would worship beauty in all its forms, and fill the air with the joy of resurrection.
Much like the Olympians from ancient mythology, Renaissance artists are regarded as gods. They revolutionized the art world, reviving themes and styles derived from the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The style they created completely contrasted with that of its predecessor, International Gothic. But how did this “Rebirth” come about? There are many answers to this question, but much of it lies in patriotism and civic values, especially in sculpture. One of the best examples of this is in 15th century Florence, which was virtually the birthplace of the Renaissance. It is there that sculpture reached its culmination, as a result of pride in the city, its history, and its values.
This research will help in understanding more about the intricate details of baroque fashion and how it is inspiring the contemporary designers.
As we know, the Romans liked to find different ways of expressing themselves. Whether it was from elaborate paintings, or timeless architecture, Rome made sure everyone knew they were proud of who they were and what they have accomplished. Being the excessive boasters that they were, the Romans wanted a way of not only displaying their riches and fortunes, but to also show their loyalty and gratitude to the great leaders who influenced their lives. Art was usually the answer; paintings and sculpture being the most popular.
Throughout history, many periods of music have existed, some of which have left behind enduring contributions to music altogether. The most important period of music however is the Baroque period. This is because the beginning of its era marked the introduction of dominant musical devices that have been used ever since. The term “baroque” was derived from the Portuguese barroco meaning “oddly shaped pearl” and refers to a period of European music or Western European art music that flourished from about 1600 to 1750. This period began when the Renaissance period of music – a period of music full of choral music and chants – began to change. The Baroque period brought with itself key devices such as variation in musical compositions, the enlargement of standard scales and chords and the process of varying one or more properties within a piece; that are used today. In contrast the renaissance period of music whereby music was often sang, contained simple rhythms and melodic lines and was mostly for the purpose of praise, the Baroque period of music started off the use of distinct melodies and harmonies opposed to the polyphony used in the Renaissance period. This new music was then called “…expansive and dramatic”. Famous composers and performers of this period include Henry Purcell, Arcangelo Corelli, Claudio Monteverdi, Antonio Vivaldi and many others.
Music exists in every known cultural group of the world and it is likely to have existed among the ancient ancestral communities. Music may have started in Africa, having existed for at least 55,000 years before evolving into an essential constituent of human life. Different people have different perspectives towards music. For instance, some may take music as jazz set, an orchestral symphony, an electronic beat or even a simple thing as the chirping of birds. Music has both positive and negative effect on humans and it depends on how it is applied. There are several theories that regard where and when the music originated. The historiographers pointed out that there are different periods of music with each period having its own characteristics, its composers, its instruments, its rhythm and significance to the existing music today. The first three periods; Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque are expounded in this essay. The periods span through different times albeit some overlapped one another. The essay also focuses on the common factor that triggered the existence of the music periods and its impacts on each period.
The Baroque period saw the creation of tonality and an approach to writing music in which a song or piece is written in a particular key. During the Baroque period, professional musicians were expected to be skilful improvisers of both solo melodic lines and accompaniment part.