The Carbonyl group is omnipresent in biological compounds. It is present in all type of organic compounds such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, fats, proteins, vitamins, and hormones. These organic compounds are essential to every living organism. Structure of aldehydes and ketones are responsible for the smell and taste in many different aromatic compounds found in nature. Carbonyl group structure is “C=O” and memebers of this group are carbonyl compounds (X-C=O).
CARBON NANO TUBES INTRODUCTION: Carbonnanotubes are the allotropes of carbon with the cylindrical nanostructure . They are less than 100 nm in dia and can be thin as 1 or 2nm. Carbon Nanotubes are long and thin cylinders of carbon. These are large macromolecules that are unique for the properties they exhibit. They can be imagined as a sheet of graphite rolled into the cylinder.
The aim of this essay is to explain the chemical and physical properties of carbon allotropes which are graphite, diamond, buckminsterfullerene, amorphous carbon and their applications in industry. Allotropes are element which is made up of the same material and have different ways of bonding to form different structure (NOVA 1995)(KALDOR 1988).There are four types of carbon allotropes which are diamond , graphite ,amorphous carbon and buckminsterfullerene (Evan, 2001) . Graphite is a slippery, black material which has high melting point and is insoluble in water. Therefore, graphite electrodes are used in electrochemical industries where corrosive gases are produced and used in high temperature electric furnace (Graphite, Encarta online,
1.Introduction Stainless steels are engineering materials and it are a complex group of iron based alloys containing at least10.5% chromium and a maximum of 1.2 % carbon. In order to define the stainless steel it can be said that the base alloy for this material is iron which contains a minimum of %11 Chromium (Cr) . The European Standard EN10088 (EN2005) defines stainless steels as iron based alloys containing at least10.5% chromium and a maximum of 1.2% carbon. The main factor for the corrosion resistance of stainless steel is its chromium content. Under the influence of oxygen from air or water, the chromium rapidly forms a very thin, chromium (III) rich oxide film on the surface of the steel.This layer very effectively separates the material from the surroundings.It is adherent, coherent and insoluble under normal conditions.
CO2 is also being used as the heat-transfer fluid in secondary heat-transfer loops (also termed “pumped CO2”). The carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant is generally of industrial or scientific grade, and is typically recovered from the waste streams of industrial processes. The embedded energy required to reclaim, clean, liquefy and transport carbon dioxide is estimated to have a carbon equivalent of 1 kg CO2 eq. per
Like photosynthesis, diffusion is able to extract a large mass of carbon from the atmosphere. Carbon sinks are a natural, but new methods using a bit of technology are being added to help aid the process. People have come up with the carbon dioxide capture and sequestration which can also help largely reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air caused by coal, gas, power plants and big industries. The process has only three
Oxygen is required by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells for energy production, often via the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. In most event oxygen is consumed as dioxygen in the form of a diatomic molecule, the configuration that exists in the atmosphere (Halliwell B,
Over the centuries,activated carbon has been used as an adsorbent and purify in water. In India, during 450 B.C. charcoal filter is used to treat water. It can be produced through the use of raw carbon resources like coal and peat, and Waste-product materials such as shells of coconut and sawdust.Activated carbon also called as activated charcoal is a carbon that undergone to processes so it will have small and low-volume pores that increase the surface area for adsorption. Two way to produce activated carbon are physical and chemical activation.
The next basic molecule is the carbohydrate. They are a key source of energy to the cell and provide some structural support and cellular communication. Carbohydrates are made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms in the form of a sugar or a polymer of sugars. A monosaccharide is a single sugar molecule, a disaccharide is two linked sugar molecules, and a polysaccharide is three or more linked sugar molecules. The chemical source of energy in carbohydrates is the main source of energy in organisms.
Chemical properties Graphene is the only form of carbon (and generally all solid materials) in which each single atom is in exposure for chemical reaction from two sides (due to the 2D structure). It is known that carbon atoms at the edge of graphene sheets have special chemical reactivity, and graphene has the highest ratio of edgy carbons (in comparison with similar materials such as carbon nanotubes). In addition, various types of defects within the sheet, which are very common, increase the chemical reactivity. 2.Mechanical Properties Another of graphene’s stand-out properties is its inherent strength. Due to the strength of its 0.142 nm-long carbon bonds, graphene is the strongest material ever discovered, with an ultimate tensile strength of 130,000,000,000 Pascal (or 130 gigapascal).