New England’s Economy Farming- New England had very rocky and hard soil. Farmers had terrible issues with growing crops. Farmers cleared rocks and trees from the soil before planting anything, and then struggled even then because of long, cold winters with no or little sunlight for the plants! So, farmers raised cattle to produce farm goods that they traded and sold, for things that higher economies had.
This episode shows the massacre at Mystic. This occurred on May 26, 1637, when Mystic Fort was attacked by the English settlers and their Indian allies. Mystic Fort in Connecticut was home to the Pequot Indians. This invasion/attack would affect the relationship and way the settlers and Indian felt about each other. During the battle, several hundred of the Pequot Indians were killed.
King Philip’s War, also known as The First Indian War, was the Native American’s (in Southern New England) last attempt at saving their lands from colonial expansion. The tribes involved with fighting back to the English Settlers were the Pokanoket, Nipmucks, Naragansetts, and Pocumtucks. The resistance were led under Chief Metacon of the Pokunoket Tribe. This desperate uprising persisted for 14 months, which, in result, took 12 towns on the frontier. After the 14 months of war, Chief Metacom was captured by the English Settlers and executed.
• 1st Activity of the Shawnee Tribe: Pontiac’s Rebellion Pontiac’s Rebellion, also known as the Pontiac War, broke out in the Ohio River Valley from 1763 to 1766. The British were fighting in this war along with the Native Indian tribes that lived within an area controlled by New France before their defeat in the French Indian War, which is known as the Pays d’en haut meaning the upper country. In 1763, Chief Pontiac led a rebellion of multiple tribes of the upper country against the British. In the Summer of 1763, Chief Pontiac launched attacks on the British in which left only Fort Pitt and Detroit in British hands.
On March 5th 1770, British Soldiers shot and killed five colonists and injured 10 of them. The tragic event was nicknamed “The Bloody Massacre”, but the colonists were at fault because they were the ones that provoked the soldiers, they attacked the soldiers, and they created a chaotic scene. First reason why the colonists were at fault is because they are the ones that provoked the soldiers. (Paragraph 2 of page 155 from the book United States History Colonization through Reconstruction written by Michael B. Stoff and James West Davidson) “A crowd gathered…colonists shouted insults.”
Imagine being forced to leave your home, just for the reason of white settlers needing land to plant cotton. In 1814, Andrew Jackson from Tennessee commanded, the U.S. military forces that defeated a faction of the Cherokee nation. In their defeat, they lost 22 million acres of land. The Cherokees were given two years to migrate voluntarily, at the end of the two years the Cherokees would be removed by force. In 1838 only 2,000 had migrated and 16,000 remained on the land.
The late 19th century, a period including Reconstruction, the Industrial Era, and “manifest destiny,” was marked by the freeing of slaves, imperialism, immense economic growth, and the rise of big businesses. (pg. 579, pg. 619, pg. 625, pg. 630)
After fighting a losing battle against the English settlers, Native Americans found themselves cornered with the passage of the Indian Appropriations Act of 1851. Authorizing the creation of Indian areas in what is now Oklahoma, the native population was once again forced into even smaller fields of land called reservations. The U.S. government made several promises to provide the tribal members with food and supplies, but fell short in keeping them. In addition, there were strict limitations on the Native Americans ability to hunt, fish, and gather food. With all of these restrictions in place, the Americans were given the upper hand in terms of controlling the Indians.
When English royalty began giving charters for the exploration of America, people had no idea what kinds of adversities they would face. While eager to obtain new land and sources of economic growth, many ignored the possible negative outcomes of exploration. English settlers would be forced to overcome human and environmental challenges that would make it difficult to establish and maintain permanent colonies in America from the time of Sir Walter Raleigh to the time of Opechancanough. When Sir Walter Raleigh organized the expedition to Roanoke, the primary reason to go to America was the possibility of establishing a profitable colony.
The trail of Tears in 1838 and 1839, as a part of Andrew Jackson’s Indian removal policy, the Cherokee was forced to give up their land that were east of the Mississippi and they were too migrate to present-day Oklahoma. The Trail of Tears began during the 1830’s. The reason the Trail of Tears took place was because of the enforcement of the Treaty of New Echota. The Treaty of New Echota was an agreement that was signed under the provisions of the Indian Removal Act. The Trail of Tears was a big event that happened.
The Trail of Tears was named so because of its devastating effects to the Cherokee nation. They were removed for one main reason, so their land could be used by the white men. Nobody had the right to take away their land. The land had been theirs since before the Europeans came and now they were being forcibly removed from it. On top of that, soldiers forced them to travel in the winter, causing thousands of Native Americans to die.
Boston Massacre took place on March5,1770 when British armies opened fire on a group of colonists killing five men in the city of Boston. This occurred during the Stamp Act, the Boston people were not happy to see British soldiers on the street. The British implied new taxes on American colonies including household goods. They were not happy by the laws. So, the colonists were protesting against them.
There is no doubt that the history between Native Americans and the government is one not to be proud of. It also goes to show that the United States never sat down and asked Native Americans what they wanted; if communication was conducted there would have been little conflict between the two. This overall theme is apparent in the 19th Century policy of Indian Removal and 20th Century’s Relocation and Termination policies. The main goal of the 19th Century policy of Indian Removal was to remove Native Americans from what was thought to be desired land. These policies were allowed to happen due to Native Americans being thought of as less than human.