The prenatal diagnostics and prenatal screening being routine procedures should be considered as advantage of modern medicine. It helps to reveal wide spectrum of fetus abnormal conditions, but not only congenital defects and malformations. Early detection of many of them could help to perform surgical correction and necessary management as soon as possible in order to save newborns’ lives. On the other hand, this method is widely discussed and it has many opponents, and in some countries prenatal diagnostic procedures is not considered now as a screening method. Main ethical issues are terminations of pregnancies in case of malformations, which may be supposed as eugenical abortion, inform consent and problem of decision-making process. This problem is closely related to moral status of fetus, ethical issue about the value of life and problem of what kind of condition should be tested for. Moral status of fetus and abortions In all prenatal diagnostic tests, there is an assumption that there may be …show more content…
In most of the cases, women pay attention to doctor’s recommendations, they also can notice the non-verbal signs . Truog (1996) consider that “an informed choice can be made if women receive all the information relevant to the decision to undergo or forgo the test and feel free of coercion or persuasion” . The decision to give birth to a child, who have disabilities is depends on socio-economic status of family. It is especially difficult for the families with unsufficient economic and emotional status. However, even families with high income may have difficulties with such decision due to fraud of society opinion . Moreover, in some countries, insurance companies refuse in healthcare insurance for a children with congenital disabilities if it is known that disability have been diagnosed prenatally and could have been prevented
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Don Marquis’s purpose to his essay is to set out to prove that abortion is seriously wrong. He is addressing that abortion is morally wrong and should not be permitted except in certain cases. The authors thesis is “Abortion, except perhaps in rare instances, is seriously wrong”(Marquis, 754). Marquis’s purpose for exceptions or rare instances is to eliminate those instances that could be considered ethically controversial such as cases like abortion after rape or abortion during the first fourteen days after conception. Marquis provides another exception in the form of a pregnancy that could endanger a woman’s life and abortion when the fetus is anencephalic.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy contribute to significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia affects 5-10% of all the pregnancies and contributes to 10-15% of maternal deaths worldwide. Estimated case fatality rate due to eclampsia is 14 times higher in developing countries compared to developed countries 1,2. Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder whose pathophysiology remains unclear. Preeclampsia is defined as a blood pressure of at least 140 mmHg systolic pressure and 90 mmHg diastolic pressure measured on two occasions 6 hours apart, accompanied by proteinuria of at least 300 mg per 24 hours, or at least 1+ on dipstick testing after 20 weeks3.
If human have their own experience, they must think the experience which they have is valuable, so that the feeling of continuing their life exists. Other reason is human have their fundamental and strong desire of being alive. (Marquis,1987), therefore Fe thtus are not strongly connected with these two arguments of immorally killing. This two rivals accounts also have problem. The desirability is not necessary condition for the side that abortion is moral.
Based on the facts the parents receive from prenatal screening, many people are not prepared for babies with bad conditions or a certain gender. In the United States, 67 percent of people decide to abort their babies when they know they have Down syndrome through prenatal screening. A couple more downsides to prenatal screening, even for people who think it is ethical, are that it is not 100% accurate and that prenatal screening itself can also harm the
1.1 Describe the causes and effects of complex disabilities and conditions. Mental health issues ranging from the doubts and uncertainties have become a part of daily routine, towards serious long term situation which can be very complex for managing and having a diversifying impact on the overall live of the people. The usual child health leads to contribute towards overall development (Watson & Le Couteur, 2011). Therefore it is important to take special care of people with complex disability as they turn out to be sensitive enough about the situation and environment they are living in.
If come across any informalities that it seems like a baby may have a ultrasound, a doctor would be able to do a fatal operation, to clarify or deny the original findings. On the other hand, I don’t think that everyone should be able to know the gender of their child as they will make that the main factor of the child entering this world. Some countries should make more laws against knowing the gender as they do in an unethical way and should be stopped. For others who don’t take advantage of it, they should have every right to know the gender and health status of the
The procedure of an abortion does more good for the mother and family than it prevents a life from occurring. The mother’s body should be respected, as it always should be. The mother’s life should always be put in priority. When rape is placed into the world of possibility behind pregnancy then a woman should always be helped during a traumatic event such as a rape. Even the idea of monetary struggles of families should be observed.
Rosalind Hursthouse in her paper Virtue Theory and Abortion, handles with the moral standpoint of abortion from a virtue ethics perspective. Her research is directed towards investigating whether or not an abortion is something a virtuous person would do. Hursthouse examines the morally relevant considerations and in so doing, she rejects the standard questions used to determine the morality of an abortion such as the status of the fetus, and the rights of a women. The morally relevant considerations she sees fit to assess the moral legitimacy of an abortion are concerns with family relationship, personal circumstance, and basic biological facts. Through her considerations, Hurthouses account of virtue ethics gives us adequate moral advice in regards to the question of abortion.
For example, finds out whether continuing or terminating a pregnancy cause greater physical or psychological harms and risks to the mother. On the other hand, Bonevski & Adams (2001) further added that abortion may expose the mother to grief and regret. As such, it is important to gain mother’s consent before making the decision. Apart from that, in resolving slightly similar case study of 18 years old student was referred in view of her request for termination of pregnancy. She was gang-raped and found out she is pregnant.
Thesis Statement: Abortion has been a major topic throughout the years, there has been much debate between pro-choice and pro-life but if people can come together to reach comprises it could help society make positive progress. There are many different views and opinions on abortion in today’s world. Some would say that abortion is wrong and others would say it is right; and some would say it is wrong or right depending on the circumstances. This is when complications surface and people began to look at all aspects of the situation. Abortion has always been a controversial social issue but not as potent as the year 2016 and 2017.
Most people avoid thinking of the idea of having one of their future children born with a genetic disorder. But this is not a realistic thought. A study made by the National Down Syndrome Society (2014) found out that about one in every seven hundred babies in the United States is born with Down syndrome, a chromosomal disorder caused by an error during the cell division. This results in an extra copy of the chromosome 21 which alters the brain and body development. People with Down syndrome are born with intellectual disability, some characteristic facial features and cognitive delays.
Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of all times. There are two types of abortion, Spontaneous which takes place naturally and induced which this essay will mainly present. Induced abortion is defined by the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy. I believe that abortion should be legalised and accepted in all countries for different reasons such as; it 's cruel for raped women to go through with pregnancy, The mother has the right to choose for herself as it is her body not anyone else’s, a young girl is not ready for the responsibilities of womanhood and finally the health of the woman is more important.
The debate whether abortion is morally permissible or not permissible is commonly discussed between the considerations of the status of a fetus and ones virtue theory. A widely recognized theory of pro-choice advocates can be thought to be that their ethical view is that fetus’s merely are not humans because they lack the right to life since they believe a fetus does not obtain any sort of mental functions or capability of feelings. Although this may be true in some cases it is not in all so explaining the wrongness of killing, between the common debates whether a fetus does or does not obtain human hood, should be illustrated in a way of a virtuous theory. The wrongness of killing is explained by what the person or fetus is deprived of, such as their right to life; not by means of a heart beat or function of one’s body, but by the fact that it takes their ability of potentially growing into a person to have the same human characteristics as we do.
The fetus should not be killed just because his/her parents were irresponsible. The fetus did not take the decision that his/ her parents would have sex or use contraception methods that are not very effective. The fetus is totally innocent and should not be punished. Each case can be analyzed to show that abortion is impermissible. In the case of
Abortion has been a controversial issue in our society. The options are which path to take in life. The two paths we have to take or to choose from are give the child a chance to live or to be a teenage parent or having an abortion. In the young age of a pregnant women will be the hardest part of her life and when she doesn’t think that she can deal with the fact that she will having a child in young age the only way that she will take would be to get an abortion. The fetus will be decide to abort by their mother resulting in or caused by its death.