In our current time different techniques are used to analyse and improve the properties of different elements and materials in order to improve day to day uses that will help better the environment and the quality of life or to improve the economy. One of these techniques is thermo gravimetric analysis this analytical technique measures the rate of change in mass of a material as a function of time or temperature in a controlled environment, the measurements can be used to determine the composition of the material and its thermal properties as the endothermic and exothermic reactions occur when the material is heated therefore determining the mass loss or gain of the material due to oxidation, decomposition or dehydration. As the discovery
2). All the reaction conditions including the concentration of the oxidant, amount of sodium hydroxide and temperature were studied. The reaction was utilized for developing two direct kinetic spectrophotometric determination of GT by monitoring the increase of the absorbance of manganate ion as a function of time at controlled temperature. These methods (A) and (B) are based on initial-slope (Method A) and fixed-time (Method B), and they were validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The proposed methods were applied for the determination of GT in pharmaceutical preparations and the results were comparable with standard methods
I. Introduction This experiment uses calorimetry to measure the specific heat of a metal. Calorimetry is used to observe and measure heat flow between two substances. The heat flow is measured as it travels from a higher temperature to a lower one. Specific heat is an amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of anything one degree Celsius.
The material was analysis (TG/DTA) curve observed peak possible for endothermic or exothermic. The material was carried out instrument for Perkin Elmer thermal analysis different temperature range 30ºC to 300 ºC in nitrogen atmosphere at heat rate 10 ºC. The instrument was using crucible as aluminum, platinum, and gold in inert gases atmosphere or nitrogen gas atmosphere. The TG curve of material was response of mass change due to thermally heat up sample. The DTA curve was correspond material and reference material using difference temperature studied for the both time and temperature measurement.
Condition monitoring by Thermography Thermography is a techniques which is used to monitor both the temperature and the temperature pattern of equipment an a substance in operation. This information, together with data on the physical construction of the component and the thermodynamic state of the equipment is used to evaluate the degree of deterioration of an item of process plant. There are some applications of thermography to different industries are described as follows: ⦁ Infrared thermography (IRT) ⦁ thermal imaging ⦁ and thermal video these are examples of infrared imagine science,thermographic cameras usually to detect radiation in the long infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and images of that radiation in produced,
Introduction Every chemical substances can absorbs, transmits and reflects certain amount of light call as electromagnetic radiation over a certain range of wavelength. Spectrophotometry is a method to measure how much a chemical compound absorbs light by measuring the intensity of the light beam passes through the sample solution. Spectrophotometry is widely used in many quantitative analysis in various areas such as in biology, chemistry, physics related fields. For example, in chemistry, this method is applied to determine the concentration of the unknown sample by measuring the absorbance of the sample and then using proper calculation to find the concentration of the unknown sample. A spectrophotometer is an instrument used for spectrophotometry that measures the amount of the intensity of light absorbed by the sample solution.
TGA/DTA Analysis Fig.1 shows the TGA/DTA curves of the metal oxide catalyst precursor before calcination. The DTA peak has a closer correspondence with the weight changes observed on the TGA curves. The decomposition occurred mainly via two distinct stages as depicted by all the curves and was complete at about 800°C. The weight loss at 697–768ºC corresponds to the loss of CO2 by the decomposition of calcium carbonate in the precursor to form CaO phase which reacts with other active ingredient CeO2 to form CaO-CeO2. Fig.1 TGA/DTA spectra of the bimetallic oxide (CaO-CeO2) catalyst.
1.1. UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Spectroscopy is the measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted when the molecules or atoms or ions of a sample move from one energy state to another energy state. Spectroscopy is a general methodology that can be adapted in many ways to extract the information you need (energies of electronic, vibrational, rotational states, structure and symmetry of molecules, dynamic information). Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry is one of the most frequently employed techniques in Pharmaceutical analysis. It involves the measurement of the amount of Ultraviolet (190-380nm) radiation by a substance in a solution.
The percentage of grafting ratio gives information about the extent of a synthetic polymer grafted onto the backbone polymer and hence it is a preferred parameter to study thermal stability of the grafted polymer. The thermal stability of graft copolymer can be compared at the onset temperature of decomposition and the percentage of weight loss for different stages of the decomposition. One can point out that there are two main degradation steps in the case of XG. Till 200˚ C, there is a 16.18% weight loss which is mainly due to water evaporation. Temperature of maximum weight loss is at 296.88˚ C and about 50% of the polymer is retained at the temperature of 400˚C, after which there is a continuous degradation.
GC can be used for the direct separation and analysis of gaseous samples, liquid solutions, and volatile solids. If the sample to be analyzed is non-volatile, the techniques of derivatization or pyrolysis GC can be utilized. Gas chromatography (GC) has been an indispensable analytical technique in the application of fatty acid determinations in oilseed plant breeding, biosynthesis, and human metabolism. As well as the characterization of complex mixtures of geometric isomers when combined with other chromatographic separations and spectroscopic identification. Plant cultivators utilize GC as a more accurate and fast method to evaluate the differences and inheritance of fatty acids in oilseed crops such as rapeseed.