In this experiment, citric acid was titrated with sodium hydroxide producing an endpoint between pH range of 8.3-10. (EASYCHEM, 2018) Citric acid has three acidic protons therefore it is a triprotic acid (lumen, 2018). The accurate concentration of the sodium hydroxide must be known to determine the citric acid concentration. The aim of this experiment was to determine the citric acid(weak acid) content of Lemon Juice by titrating it with standard sodium hydroxide solution(strong base).
For a general salt, AmBn, the equation would be: The equilibrium constant for such a salt would be: The solubility product expression matches the coefficients in the equilibrium equation, and that the solid is not included in the Ksp equation. In this experiment, you will determine the Ksp for the sparingly soluble salt potassium hydrogen tartrate (also called acid tartarate or bitartrate). It dissolves in water to give potassium ions and hydrogentartrate ions according to the following equation: KHC4H4O6 K+ + HC4H4O6-
Introduction: Benzopinacol can be prepared from benzophenone in presence of sun light (photochemically) using isopropanol as the reducing agent in presence of acetic acid. Acetic acid is added to prevent the cleavage of benzopinacol to benzophenone and benzhydrol by the alkali derived from the glass container used for the reaction. Benzopinacol obtained in the first experiment is converted to benzopinacolone by heating under reflux (5 minutes) with glacial acetic acid containing trace amount of iodine dissolved in it. This reaction is known as pinacol- pinacolone rearrangement.
However, the process is both time and temperature dependent, with conversion 90% complete within 75 minutes at 93°C. The reaction proceeds via surface-controlled kinetics; when sodium bicarbonate crystals are heated for a short period of time, very fine needle-shaped crystals of anhydrous sodium carbonate are formed on the sodium bicarbonate surface. Sodium bicarbonate is stable in dry air but slowly decomposes in moist air and should therefore be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place. 5.9. TALC83:
Secondly, filter this mixture to remove the remaining silica and other insoluble materials. Next, add oxalic acid (H2C204), to the limestone powered. This mixture will create a calcium oxalate ( CaC2O4), and aqueous carbonic acid ( H2C03), according to this formula: CaC03 + H2C2O4 -> CaC2O4 + H2CO3. The next step is to rinse the calcium oxalate and sprinkle some deionized water and pour it into a beaker. Then add hydrochloric acid to create calcium chloride (CaCl2), according to the formula: CaC2O4 + 2HCl -> CaCl2 + 2CO2 + H2.
2-hydroxybenzoic acid, C6H4(OH)COOH - commercially known as salicylic acid exists as a colourless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. It is partially soluble in water and completely soluble in ethanol and ether. This acid is very commonly used in the preparation of its ester derivatives as it contains both a hydroxyl (-OH) and a carboxylic (-COOH) group. Due to the presence of these functional groups, it is able to react with both an acid and an alcohol.1 (“Salicylic acid”). The very first preparation of salicylic acid was made by Italian chemist Raffaele Piria in 1838 from salicylaldehyde.2 (Brown).
Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid. The chemical reaction observed showed that there was fizzing and bubbling, this is evidence that a new gas was being produced. This new gas, CO2 was generated from the reaction. After the fizzing stopped a liquid was leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover was the NaCl and H2O 4. You found a sample of a solution that has a faint odor resembling vinegar (an acid).
Positive results should be red-purple residue. The principles involved in this test were oxidation of purine by concentrated HNO3; condensation reaction of alloxan to form alloxanthin; and neutralization which forms the red purple murexide or the potassium salt of purpurate. In the sample, the red-purple residue did not appear which means that there is the absence of purines in the DNA
Caffeine is more soluble in dichloromethane (14g/100g) than in water (2g/100g). Caffeine will dissolve in the dichloromethane phase while tannins salts remain in the aqueous phase. Addition of sodium sulphate will act as a drying agent and evaporation of the dichloromethane solution would yield pure caffeine which is white in
Sodium carbonate (molecular formula: Na2CO3), is the water soluble sodium salt of carbonate. The pure product appears as a while, odorless powder with a strong alkaline taste. It has high hygroscopicity. It can be easily dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution with moderate alkalinity Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate) is chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions.
Large bubbles with a short duration indicate a higher alcohol content, while smaller bubbles that disappear more slowly indicate lower alcohol content. A common folk test for the quality of moonshine was to pour a small quantity of it into a spoon and set it on fire. The theory was that a safe distillate burns with a blue flame, but a tainted distillate burns with a yellow flame. Practitioners of this simple test also held that if a radiator coil had been used as a condenser, then there would be lead in the distillate, which would give a reddish flame.
To help with nasal polyps, you would take hot water (hot enough to produce steam) and apple cider vinegar. The ratio should be roughly 1 part apple cider vinegar to 3 parts water. Mix the vinegar and water together and then gently breathe in the steam. Put a towel over your head, if it helps you to inhale more of the steam. You can also take a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar, a dollop of honey, and water and create a drink from this.
Alka-Seltzer tablets are used to treat headaches, stomach and body aches and also heartburn. They consist of citric acid (C6H8O7), baking soda (NaHCO3), and aspirin (C9H8O4). The fizzing observed is a result of a chemical reaction between the citric acid and baking soda which form carbon dioxide in turn causing the fizzing. When the tablets are dropped into water they dissolve and dissociate into the ions in the equation: C6H8O7 (s) → 3H+ (aq) + C6H5O7 3- (aq).