Inmates were sent to the Dark Cell when they disobeyed, such as if they did not go to bed when told to, were not clean in person, or their clothing and if their cell was not clean, were not quiet, orderly and decent in his/her behavior. Did not wake up when told to, did not shave once per week and did not get a haircut once per month, and many more. ( Rules and Regulations for Yuma Territorial Prison 1895 ) If they did not get sent into the “ Dark Cell “, they had a chain that had a heavy ball attached to their ankles, or the chain was attached to the floor of their cell and to their ankle. In all the thirty three years of operation, only one hundred and eleven deaths occurred.
Night: The Psychology of Evil “The line between good and evil is permeable and almost anyone can be induced to cross it when pressured by situational forces,” said Philip Zimbardo after his 1971 Stanford mock trial prison experiment. Throughout the Zimbardo experiment, Zimbardo defined many terms such as dehumanization and deindividuation. Like Zimbardo, Eliezer, a young Jew from 1944 who was deported to multiple concentration camps and also wrote the novel Night, faced copious German militants who abused their power by dehumanizing their fellow humans by taking away essential items for human life such as food, drink, and freedom. Through the countless number of years that humanity has existed, victimizers who have been given power over others have chosen to abuse their fellow humans and make them victims of their rule. To study how power affects human nature, various psychological studies have been conducted to explain such behavior.
Humans are truly social creatures; not only do people crave social interaction, it is needed to survive. Why, then, would anyone deny something that is needed to survive to children? Everyday in the United States, there are hundreds, if not thousands of youth that are locked in solitary confinement. Solitary confinement is used as a form of punishment for prisoners who are acting out or breaking rules in jail. The process involves putting the person in a cell alone for 23 hours a day.
Solitary confinement is the act of housing a convict for 22-23 hours a day in an isolated cell, completely free from any human contact for an extended period of time. Going from days to possibly decades while sitting in these cells. There are more than 80,000 men, women, and children in solitary confinement in prisons across the United States according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Not including thousands more in jails, juvenile facilities, immigration detention centers and military prisons. After experiencing confinement some inmates suffer from negative mental health effects that can possibly lead to suicide.
There is mounting evidence suggesting that the use of solitary confinement on prisoners is inhumane. Studies show that solitary confinement causes prisoners to develop mental and personality disorders. Mental illness often emerges in the minds of prisoners who are exposed to very little human contact. If a prisoner does not already have a mental illness, the prisoner is likely to contract one (Washington Post). The psychologist Stuart Grassian of Harvard Medical School claims that solitary confinement causes hallucinations, panic attacks, paranoia, and permanent difficulty with concentration and memory (BBC News).
In the novel the idea of ‘screw fever’ is discussed, referring to the new inmates’ longing to leave. In the film this is visually represented in the character of Fat-Ass who is beaten to death by the guards after breaking down in tears on his first night. This scene is shown in a wide, static, objective long shot. The emphasis is not on the violence and but rather on the place to highlight the
Imagine being locked away underground, in a room with no window, no source of sunlight, neglected from any source of human contact; it is a terrifying thought, is it not? Now, imagine living in such a manner for days, months, years to decades, this is the haunting reality for numerous prison inmates that are subjected to solitary confinement. Solitary confinement is the act of isolating people in closed cells for 22-24 hours a day, restricted from human contact, for periods of time ranging from days to decades (Solitary Watch, 2012). There are beyond 80,000 men, women, and children imposed to solitary confinement in prisons throughout the United States (American friends service committee, 2010). The negative effects on prison inmates due to solitary confinement are: psychological harm, physical harm, and a greater harm on the individuals in their communities and themselves after they are released.
He also even willingly goes to jail in order to serve as a sacrificial symbol towards his cause. Towards the end of the film, Tom Joad decides that it is in his best interest to leave the family behind and pursue fighting injustices against migrant farmers in any way he can. Another way this conflict is resolved is at the end of the film when Ma Joad says: “We’re the people that live” (Grapes of Wrath). She describes that their ability to persevere through hard times is empowering and makes them a stronger people. This empowerment is what fuels their ability to combat injustice thus sparking a resolution to the
Horror stories about the brutal treatment of inmates in prisons has been the focus of several popular movies over the last few decades. The fact is that prison brutality is real and prisoners at Alabama prisons went on strike to protest against inhuman conditions and treatment at Alabama prisons. The 29,000 male and female prisoners that are housed in Alabama prisons went on strike May Day. The prison strike clearly showed that prisoners are coming together to organize and demand better conditions along with better treatment.
In the early days, prisons were a relatively new concept. Both in Europe and in America residents used the approach of an eye for an eye, and public hangings in town squares for the price of a murder, rape and even theft. As more humane punishments began to change, officers stored prisoners in warehouses, buildings, and individual rooms. According to vasiliades, "this experiment of which the favorable results have been anticipated, prove fatal for the majority of prisoners". "It devours the victim's instantly and hummer sadly it does not reform, it kills"(Vasiliades, 2005).
The retribution part is to punish the person for the crime that they permitted against society, and the incapacitation part is to remove that person out of society so they do no further harm. Deterrence means the prevention of future crime, and the rehabilitation teaches life skills and in the betterment. However, author Sandiford says that instead of solving crime, mass incarceration has infected our communities and striking them with devastating symptoms, and prison costs have skyrocketed, inmates ' families have been torn apart, and the system is overwhelmingly stratified by race and class (Sandiford,
In 1971, Philip Zimbardo set out to conduct an experiment to observe behavior as well as obedience. In Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison experiment, many dispute whether it was obedience or merely conforming to their predesigned social roles of guards and prisoners that transpired throughout the experiment. Initially, the experiment was meant to test the roles people play in prison environment; Zimbardo was interested in finding out whether the brutality reported among guards in American prisons was due to the sadistic personalities of the guards, disposition, or had more to do with the prison environment. This phenomenon has been arguably known to possibly influencing the catastrophic similarities which occurred at Abu Ghraib prison in 2003.The
These racially motivated police brutality issues are known to happen all across the country in places like Michigan to places like Idaho. On July 27, 1919, an African-American teenager drowned in Lake Michigan after being stoned by a group of white teenagers. The combination of his death and the police’s refusal to arrest a white man who saw this event occur and did nothing is what caused The Chicago Race Riot. When the riots ended on August 3rd, 15 whites and 23 blacks were killed and an additional 500+ people were injured. Many upper class white families were left homeless after their homes were torched in the riots.
Solitary confinement has been a crucial component of the American prison system since the appearance of jails in the early 1800’s. One main cricsticsm of solitary conferment has been that is causes the inmates increased psychological and sociological distress .Not only that but can in turn make the inmate more violent. The use of solitary confinement is highly profound in supermax prisons .
Solitary confinement began as a standard punishment of the penitentiary system in the United States in the nineteenth century. It was a response to the philosophical transformation influenced by the Enlightenment, that sought to distance punishment from brutality (Cloud, Drucker, Browne, & Parsons, 2015). The penitentiary system was developed as a more humane alternative to the torture and executions that were happening in England (Cloud et al., 2015). Instead of having corporal and capital punishment, such as public hangings and whippings, individuals were confined to their own cells (Guenther, 2013). Supporters, such as the Quakers, believed that this confinement would force the individuals to confront their own conscience, and they would