The process of respiration occurs according to Boyle’s law. Boyle’s law states that for a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature, the volume is inversely proportional to pressure. This means that as volume increases pressure decreases and vice versa. During inhalation the intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract resulting in an increase in the volume of the lungs and hence the thoracic cavity. As the volume increases, pressure decreases creating an area of sub atmospheric pressure within the lungs.
The pleural space begins to fill causing the-the mediastinum to maneuver around, which can lead to disruption of the airflow and pulmonary circulation. Once the air circulation is disrupted the patient begins to compensate. Tension pneumothorax can be misleading if not realizing to symptoms. A patient with tension pneumothorax is going to have chest pain caused by the lung collapsing. The patient will experience respiratory distress causing the patient to breath faster because they are not getting the proper amount of oxygen, respiratory distress can lead to altered mental status and diminished breath
It also has a very thick cardiac muscle wall (myocardium), this is because it needs a strong wall to be able to push the oxygenated blood to all areas of the body. The heart also contains (i) The tricuspid and bicuspid valves- these are situated between the atrium and ventricle. It is there to prevent backflow of blood from the ventricle to the atrium, it is a one way flow of blood. (ii) The septum- this divides the right and left sides of the heart. (iii) Pacemaker- this sends out regular nervous impulses which travel along the axons of the pf the nerve cells out through the walls of the atria.
Because air always flows from a region of high pressure to an area of lower pressure, it travels in through the body’s conducting airway (nostrils, throat, and trachea) into the alveoli of the lungs. During a resting exhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax, restoring the thoracic (Chest) cavity to its original (smaller) size, and forcing air out of the lungs and into the atmosphere. Whereas breathing is involved with the movement of air into and out of the chest cavity, respiration involves the exchange of gases in the
The oxygenated blood comes from placenta to the fetus through umbilical vein to the fetus’s liver. Then it moves through ductus venosus. This allows some of the blood to go to the liver. But most of this highly oxygenated blood flow to the inferior vena cava and then into the right atrium of the heart. Most of the blood flow across to the left atrium through the foramen ovale.
The top number is systole and the bottom is diastole. Diastole is the reading when the heart is relaxed and systole is when the ventricles of the heart contract (the working phase of the heart) Hypertension (high blood pressure) is blood pressure that consistently remains above the normal level of 120/80. Things such as stress, kidney disease, smoking, too much alcohol and bad diet can cause high blood pressure Hypotension (Low blood pressure) is when the blood pressure constantly remains below the normal level of 120/80. Things such as shock, haemorrhage, burns, some types of medication, dehydration, anaemia and allergic reactions can cause low blood
Ventilation/perfusion scans: Ventilation/perfusion scans, sometimes called a VQ (V=Ventilation, Q=perfusion) scan, is a way of identifying mismatched areas of blood and air supply to the lungs. It is primarily used to detect a pulmonary embolus. The perfusion part of the study uses a radioisotope tagged to the blood which shows where in the lungs the blood is perfusing. If the scan shows up any area missing a supply on the scans this means there is a blockage which is not allowing the blood to perfuse that part of the organ. Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.
Blood in oxygen from the systemic circulation enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cava and passes to the ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation_ where the oxygen is used and diabolized to carbon dioxide. Describe the condition Hypertension: This is blood pressure that consistently remains above the normal level of 120/80. Causes: kidney disease, smoking, alcohol and diet.
INTRODUCTION Phonocardiogram is a physiological signal that results from the vibrations created by closure of heart valves and it represents the recording of the heart sound signal. A normal cardiac cycle is comprised of two major sounds- first sound (S1) and the second heart sound (S2). The first heart sound has four components in it, due to the closure of AV and semilunar valves. The second heart sound has two components, one due to closure of aortic valve and another due to closure of pulmonary valve (Rangayyan, R.M and Lehner ,R.J (1988). In some case a third heart sound (S3) may be heard, which is corresponding to sudden termination of the ventricular rapid filling phase.
A spirometer generates a spirogram which is used to measure a person’s total lung capacity (the maximum amount of air the lungs can hold), tidal volume (the amount of air moving into or out of the lungs during one breathing cycle), and functional residual capacity (the volume of air left in the lungs after passive respiration) (Michailopoulos, et al., 2015). A spirometer can also measure additional air that is inhaled and exhaled from a person’s normal respiration called inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume (Michailopoulos, et al., 2015).
Therefore, peak expiratory flow rate would refer to the maximum speed of expiration. Expiratory flow is decreased in Al because loss of elastic fibers in the lungs impairs the expiratory flow rate. Narrowing of the airways inside the lungs, in addition to damage to the lungs, causes the exhaled air to come out more slowly than normal (NIH, 2016). In people with COPD, the air sacs can no longer revert back to their original shape. The airways become swollen or thicker than normal.
Right-sided heart failure is when the cardiac muscle on the right side of the heart becomes too weak to pump a sufficient amount of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. It is usually a complication of various conditions including lung diseases such as emphysema. This means that less oxygenated blood is taken from the lungs by the pulmonary veins and transported to the left side of the heart to then be pumped around the body. It can also produce a back-up of blood in the vessels within the body. This failure to pump sufficient blood to the lungs results in a build-up of fluid, which is known as oedema.
For example, the heart allows ions to flow directly from one heart cell to another. Local/paracrine hormones are short distance connections of hormone communication. It is one cell releasing chemicals to a nearby cell. Not a direct connection, unlike gap junctions. An example would be between a neuron (brain cell) and a muscle (receptor cell).
PULMONARY OEDEMA Introduction Pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Left ventricular failure and also a result of non-cardiogenic complications (Deepak, 2010). In this essay the three main causes of oedema will be explained, the pathophysiology, the intensity factors and the management in a pre-hospital setting. Causes of Pulmonary Oedema The two main causes of oedema are cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Heart failure. When the heart loses the ability to pump out blood to systemic circulation, it back flows into the pulmonary circulation.
Asthma is a condition that affects a person 's breathing. Inside the lungs are airways called breathing tubes or bronchial tubes. With asthma, some of the smallest tubes can swell and narrow, making it harder for air to get through. Let’s talk about breathing. When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth, then goes to the windpipe, also called the trachea from there, the air travels into the lungs through the breathing tubes.