ABGs showed a normal or decreased PaCo2 despite severe dyspnea and hypoxemia. Other types of blood tests can check for signs of infection or anemia. If Doctor suspects that patient have a lung infection, secretions from airway may be tested to determine the cause of the infection. 4.3.3 Heart
During percussion, the nurse strikes the chest to determine the condition of the underlying tissues. The nurse percusses the lobes of the lungs and over the heart to detect any abnormalities. During auscultation, the nurse places her stethoscope over the lungs and heart to detect abnormal breath sound e.g. stridor, rales, rhonchi etc. Assessment of the respiratory system will enable the nurse to detect the respiratory problems and to make good diagnosis for the patients.
Surgical Repair If the thoracic aortic aneurysm become larger or you are already causing symptoms, you will need a quick treatment to prevent a rupture from occurring. The weakened section of the vessel can be replaced with a stent graft of artificial material and surgically removed. If the aortic aneurysm is so close to the aortic valve (the one that regulates blood flow from the heart into the aorta), a valve should be replace if the physician recommended it during the
To use a dialysis machine a tube is inserted into the bloodstream of a patient allowing blood to enter the machine. As shown in Diagram 3, once in the machine the blood flows through tubes and into the dialyzer composed of a semi-porous membrane which works similar to a glomerulus. Blood cells, proteins and other large particles are prevented from passing though while waste products such as urea and salts flow through and are absorbed by sterilised solution called dialysate and are washed away. Dialysate is composed of acidified solution, bicarbonate and purified water. The treated blood is then returned into the bloodstream of the patient.
PI is expressed as a percentage (0.02-20%). The main objective of this project is to track the Perfusion index of critically ill patients, which helps in giving more information about the patient’s health data in a more convenient way. We used a Pulse Oximeter sensor and obtained the IR LED values and RED LED values separately and used those values to find the PI Index value. Changes in PI can also occur as a result of local vasoconstriction (decrease in PI) or vasodilatation (increase in PI) in the skin at the monitoring site. These changes occur with changes in the volume of oxygenated blood flow in the skin microvasculature.
Acute deep vein thrombosis can be seen by pain and swelling. Usually acute deep vein thrombosis is occlusive where the clots already obstruct the blood flow. Chronic deep vein thrombosis can be label when there are no symptoms but it found by screening such as ultrasound doppler, CT Scan and blood
Introduction: Blood pressure is the measure of the force on arteries applying by blood as pumping out of the heart. Blood pressure measurement includes systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the force that the heart needs to create to get the blood start to flow in our circulatory system; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is the pressure on arteries when the heart relaxes before pumping the blood out of the heart. Another factor that helps us to have a better understanding of blood pressure is mean arterial pressure (MAP) which is the average pressure in a person’s arteries during a single cardiac cycle. Resting blood pressure in a normal and healthy person is defined as 120/80 mm Hg with a resting heart rate
A heart and lung bypass machine is used in order to allow oxygenated blood to continue to flow throughout the rest of the body.20 The VAD is then implanted into the right or left ventricle. A VAD specifically works by carrying blood through a tube from the ventricle to a pump. The pump then takes the blood to the aorta, where the blood can now be distributed to the rest of the body. A battery powered control unit is connected to the pump
It is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel, including the body’s major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arm, leg, neck and head. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound i.e. color Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler. • Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of colors to show the direction and speed of blood flow through a blood vessels. • Power Doppler is a sensitive technique then the color technique and it shows more detail about blood flow.
Vena cava filters are small mechanical devices that are positioned in the vena cava with the sole purpose of preventing large blood clots from travelling from the legs to the pulmonary arteries. Clots reaching the arteries of the lungs may cause pulmonary embolism, which is a life-threatening condition. Aneurysms of the aorta as well as dissections may be treated with the use of endoluminal stent grafts. This requires the placement of a reinforcing tube within the affected parts of the