Utilitarianism Theory: Jeremy Bentham And John Mill

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1. Utilitarianism Philosopher View (Jeremy Bentham & John Mill)
Utilitarianism theory was founded by Jeremy Bentham and then got expanded by John Mill who came up with the 2 types or forms of Utilitarianism which are Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism says an action is right if it tends to promote happiness, and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness and doesn’t just involve the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it.
So what would be the Utilitarianism view of abortion?
As I said before there are 2 forms of Utilitarianism, the Act & the Rule Utilitarianism.

A. Act Utilitarianism view:
The Act Utilitarianism is Judges an act in terms of the consequences
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Deontology Philosopher View (Kant)
The father of the Deontological theory is Emanuel Kant who said that deontology is about Duties, Moral Rules, Rationality, Human Rights, and the Categorical imperative where you treat humans as an end it self not as means to an end. So what would be the Deontological view of abortion?

In the deontological theory Human rights argument can be used in 2 ways:

A. In Favor: Many pro-choice philosophers acknowledge that the fetus is indeed a being worthy of respect and some degree of moral consideration, and that abortion, although a procedure women have a right to obtain. However, most of them argue that the fetus is not rational and do not possess the cognitive traits of personhood hence have no rights, but a woman has full rights on her own body.

B. Against: Many pro-life philosophers have invoked the formula of humanity in order to argue that embryos and fetuses are worthy of the same level of dignity and respect Kant would ascribe to any other person.

3. Virtue Theory Philosopher View (Aristotle)
Virtue theory is mainly about Self Improvement and believes that happiness comes with self-improvements. Moreover, it’s about having a role model that you follow because you think he\she has the desired virtues. In the end, virtue theory answers the questions "How should I live? What kind of person should I
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Mary Anne Warren
In her seminal article “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion,” argues that because neither the embryo nor fetus nor infants possesses the cognitive traits of personhood, they are akin in moral value to a fish and have no more moral rights than a newborn guppy.

2. Judith Jarvis Thomson
In her influential article “A Defense of Abortion,” Judith Jarvis Thomson argues that, even if we fully grant fetuses the status of persons, akin to that of any other person, this alone does not necessitate the moral impermissibility of abortion. This is because no one person’s right to life entails that another person must forcibly submit to unwanted bodily intrusion with the goal of sustaining the former’s life.

3. Rosalind Hursthouse
Hursthouse's article "Virtue Theory and Abortion" argues that whereas most discussions of abortion focus on the issue of who has rights to make decisions regarding the fetus, a decision made within one's rights could still be callous or cowardly, meaning that it would be ethically problematic and potentially devastating for the person making it, whatever the status of the fetus and the reproductive rights of women.

4. Peter
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