TASK 3.1 Write a report comparing and contrasting the structure and function of the three types of blood vessels. The Structure and Functions of Blood Vessels ARTERIES The walls of arteries contain smooth muscle fibre that contract and relax under the instructions of the sympathetic nervous system. The functions of the arteries are: transport blood away from the heart and transport oxygenated blood only. Arteries have four different parts, which are; lumen, endothelium, smooth muscle and connective tissue. LUMEN=the lumen of arteries is relatively narrow to maintain high blood pressure.
From the cavernous sinus they travel along the abducens nerve. The fibers enter the orbit through the superior orbital fissure, and pass through the ciliary ganglion, without synapsing. Finally the fibers enter the eye through the ciliary nerves and terminate on the dilator pupillae muscle (Chaudhuri & Gupta, 2012). Doctor’s test this reflex in cases of suspected Horner’s
Varicose Veins Overview- A varicose vein (or varicose veins) is the abnormal dilation of the veins that appear swollen and that sometimes, when the varicose vein involves a superficial vein, can be observed through the skin. In our body the arteries carry oxygenated blood to the rest of the body from the heart, the veins, however, return the oxygen-poor blood to the heart because it is pushed towards the lungs and oxygenated. The arteries, which push oxygenated blood, they have a very effective muscle layer, which carries blood to the pressure or heart but not so the veins, which carry blood to low pressure. Every vein so it can dilate and become varicose, in fact it is a fairly common disease that affects mainly the veins of the legs and
Perfusion : Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through". Tests verifying that adequate perfusion exists are a part of a patient's assessment process that are performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating a body's skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates.
Blood vessels names are determined by their blow flow (away from the heart is artery; vein is towards the heart). If they connect arteries and veins then they are called capillaries and if an organ is receiving or returning the blood then the organ’s name is a part of the blood vessel’s name. Circle of Willis is a looped network (anastomosis) of arteries at the base of the brain. Branches of the internal carotid arteries form the front of the circle and branches of the posterior cerebral arteries form the back of the circle, with smaller arteries, collectively called the communicating arteries, branching from them. The circle of Willis is “a unique vascular structure in the body that provides an extended safety net of redundancy for the brain’s blood supply; the
6-78). It is the passageway between the pharynx and the stomach. “Each end of the esophagus is encircled by muscular sphincters that act as valves to regulate passage of material. The upper esophageal sphincter in the cervical part of the esophagus helps prevent air entering the esophagus during
During this process there is thinning of the left ventricular walls, with the elliptical LV becoming more spherical and an increase in the dilatation of the LV . A number of different surgical techniques and modifications have been developed to restore LV shape and reduce its volume to improve LV function and are collectively known as left ventricular reconstruction [15-18]. This is a specific surgical procedure developed for the management of heart failure with left ventricular remodeling caused by coronary artery disease. Despite its success, these procedures have not found general acceptance in the medical community. Possible reasons include a lack of robust prospective randomized data showing the mortality benefit of this technique in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and dilated ventricles that were referred for CABG.
Pathophysiology The present of a patent foramen ovale is required to permit blood flow across the septum into the left atrium, the patent duct arteriosus allows blood to flow to the pulmonary artery into the lungs. VSD allows a modest amount of blood to enter the right ventricle &pulmonary artery. Thus pulmonary blood flow is diminished. Clinical manifestation - Cyanosis - Tachycardia - Dyspnea - Hypoxia with clubbing Management For neonates whose pulmonary blood flow depends on the patency of the ductus arteriosus, a continuous infusion of Prostaglandin E1, is started until surgical intervention can be arranged. Palliative treatment: A Bidirectional Clenn shunt can be performed at 6-9 month.
It is a noninvasive technique that means this signal is measured on the surface of human body which is used in identification of the heart diseases [17, 18]. Any disorder of heart rate or rhythm, or change in the morphological pattern, is an indication of cardiac arrhythmia which could be detected by analysis of the recorded ECG waveform. The amplitude and duration of the PQRS-T wave contains useful information about the nature of disease afflicting the heart. The electrical wave is due to depolarization and repolarization of Na+ and K ions in the blood . Electrocardiography is considered to be one of the most powerful diagnostic tools in medicine that is routinely used for the assessment of the functionality of the heart.
Heart is a four-chambered muscular pumping organ that divides into atriums and ventricles that are separated by valves to prevent backflow of blood among the compartments (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2010). However, heart undergoes two types of circulatory loops in the transportation of blood which are systemic and pulmonary circulation (Taylor, n.d.). Systemic circulation pumps oxygenated blood from heart into all tissues in the body and return the deoxygenated blood back into the heart via vena cava (Taylor, n.d.). On the other hand, pulmonary circulation responsible in the transportation of deoxygenated blood into the lungs for gaseous exchange that results in the return of oxygenated blood into the heart via pulmonary vein (Taylor, n.d.). Another major component of CVS is blood