Walking In The Wind: A Memoir Of The Civil Rights Movement

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Furthermore, Jim Crow laws protected the practice of segregation. Managers of many businesses refused to serve African Americans. According to John Lewis, author of Walking in the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement, Fueling this wave of racial ill-treatment was the U.S. Supreme Court 's ruling in the Civil Rights Cases (1883) that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional. The Court now held that the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited unequal treatment by state authorities but not by private businesses. Therefore, facilities like the Woolworths store and S. H. Kress & Co. could decide whether or not they would serve African Americans. In many cases, Blacks faced ill-treatment and inequality. The ruling of Plessy vs. Ferguson declared that

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