Plessy Vs Ferguson

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De Facto Segregation: Unlike De Jure, De Facto has nothing to do with the law. Though segregation legally ended in 1964 through the civil right act, the social customs and expectations were strongly imbedded that lasted long term. These social impacts contribute to personal preference and leads to discrimination such as racial steering.

Plessy v. Ferguson: The case occurred when Homer Plessy refused to sit in the Jim Crow car, which violated the Louisiana law and was put before Judge John H. Ferguson to challenge whether the state law conflicted with the Constitution or not. Indeed, in 1896, Ferguson concluded that the law was merely a legal distinction between two races and did not conflict with 13th amendment law. Society then adopted a system of “separate but equal” that emphasized separate facilities for blacks and whites …show more content…

Board of education: In 1954, a lawsuit against school board in Kansas took place when uprising civil rights groups and lawyers on behalf of black schoolchildren and their families challenged the racial segregation. Brown, one of the class action representatives, claimed that racial segregation violated the Constitutional’s Equal Protection Clause, which states no law should deny equal protection by law; however, the psychological studies showed black girls had low racial self-esteem and might affect their ability to learn. Therefore, racial segregation of children in public school did violate the clause thus the 14th amendment.

Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC): As part of the New Deal, home owners Loan Corporation formed in 1933 were to refinance home mortgages that were at risk of foreclosure due to the depression. Since then it has supported almost one million mortgage applications so that more Americans can become homeowners and develop rationally patriotic feeling during the war; however, these mortgage rates were based on occupation, income, ethnicity and demand on the market that might be bias to the non-white

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