Beginning with different train cars to separate race, Homer Plessy sat in a car that was for whites only. He was challenged and harassed by the conductor, then later arrested for breaking the law. The majority vote was that they could not put the races together. It wasn 't until later that the segregation under state law was ended, but the judgment wasn 't an immediate response for Plessy. Segregation led to whites and blacks not being able to marry.
As current time and social status are being challenged and pushed, the Jim Crow Laws were implemented. These state and local laws were just legislated this year, 1877. New implemented laws mandate segregation in all public facilities, with a “separate but equal” status for African Americans. This may lead to treatment and accommodations that are inferior to those provided to white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational, and social disadvantages. In the Jim Crow context, the presidential election of 1912 was steeply slanted against the interests of black Americans.
Plessy vs Ferguson was a controversial case which came up with the phrase "separate but equal." The case started when Louisiana tried to establish a law that would segregate blacks and white on trains like many states had done. However the black community in New Orleans did not like it however the state legislature approved the law even though there were blacks in the legislature. In 1892 a man named Homer Plessy sat in the white compartment of a train and was kicked off the train by the conductor. Later, lawyer named Albion Tourgee argued that the law was unconstitutional and took it to Supreme Court where the Supreme Court rejected it and ruled in the favor of the law.
The train conductor noticed Plessy on the train car and kindly asked him if he was white. Plessy answered that he was black, and as a result, he was arrested. According to an article entitled, “Another Jim Crow Car Case” in a local newspaper, The Daily Picayune, on June 9, 1892, Homer Plessy violated Louisiana's Separate Car Act in an effort to test the law. Private Detective Cain arrested Plessy on
In 1946, another African American man, Heman Sweat, was applying to University of Texas Law School, but was denied acceptance due to his race. In an attempt to get away with not admitting Sweat to the white law school, the University of Texas set up a black law school that did not live up to the standards it should have. Sweat knew he was not receiving the same education at the black law school that he would at the white law school, so he decided to sue and the case made it to the Supreme Court. In 1950, the Supreme Court completely agreed with Sweat, because of the obvious inequalities in the two schools. The University of Texas believed they were following the phrase “separate but equal,” when in reality nothing about the schools was equal.
The 14th amendment completely rewrites the whole constitution and deems the slaves as full citizens of the United States. This amendment also undoes the ruling of the Dred Scott case which states that no black man has any rights that any white man should recognize. Even with this amendment being passed only two states explicitly allowed black men to vote, Tennessee and Iowa. Eventually because many white men began to find loop holes in letting the black men vote the 15th amendment was passed. The new 15th amendment states a list of reasons that a state cannot allow an individual to vote.
In the Dred Scott Decision of 1857, Chief Justice Taylor declares that black people have not rights and they are just articles of merchandise. Considering this, he is stating America is a white man's country and every other race has no voice in this country. However, even with the ratification of the 13th,14th, and 15th Amendments, discrimination and prejudice still remain strong.
The “Plessy V. Ferguson” case is a very important case in U.S. history and U.S. civil rights, as it legalized segregation for decades. Homer Plessy appeared to a white man living a Louisiana, but he was ⅛ black, which was considered black in Louisiana. When Plessy tried to board a “whites only” railroad car in protest of Louisiana's “Separate Car Act” that legally separated train cars, he was arrested when he refused to move to colored car on the train. Once the case went through both district and state courts, it moved up to the U.S. Supreme Court where Plessy and his attorney argued that the law ostracized the colored people from the white, which would be unconstitutional. This was known as the “Plessy V. Ferguson” case.
However, it is clear to see it is not equal, because of these problems that are stated. The 14th amendment also says, “no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States” (source #3). This explains, how it was most definitely for states to make their own segregational laws that took away the rights of people. Therefore, segregation should have never been allowed under the rights. Given all of these points, segregation was ended because of these main problems.
However, Tom Robinson is no match for the iron grasp racism has on the southern United States. In the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, racial prejudice leads to the unfair treatment of Tom Robinson during his court case and after his death. During the trial of Tom Robinson, racial prejudice and stereotyping lead to unfair bias amongst the jury, ultimately resulting in a wrongful conviction. Tom Robinson, a black man, is on trial for rape. He has a very good chance of winning the trial because the prosecution "has not produced…medical evidence…that the crime…took place" (Lee 271).
The article titled, “Govt. Powerless To Interfere Says Attorney General”, showed the unwillingness of the federal government to outlaw lynchings. Senator Robert F. Wagner had sent Attorney General Homer Cummings, a telegram, to look into the events of two lynchings in Mississippi and Georgia. According to one report, a mob shot and killed an African-American blacksmith named Tom Green for killing his white boss due to a wage dispute. Another was the death of a 60-year-old black man named John Dukes, who was killed by whites in revenge for Dukes shooting a white constable.