The Act mandated equal but separate rail travel in Louisiana by forcing the railway to provide separate cars for its black and white citizens. It also gave railway officers the “authority to refuse to carry any passenger that refused to sit within their designated race”. (Medley, 2003) This Act incensed a group of eighteen elite black men and in September 1891 they came together to form the Comite` des Citoyens. The Comite`, also called the Citizens Committee for the Annulment of Act 111, opposed the Separate Car Act of 1890. They raised funds, held rallies, composed legal tactics, and decided to run two test cases.
A group of African-American students decided to integrate Central High School in Arkansas, they were faced with a white mob and the governor did not agree with these actions. The students still found a way in but left shortly after. The action of Little Rock segregating students was also a violation of the 14th amendment. The Civil Rights March in Washington was an event led by Martin Luther King Jr. in 1963 that was a peaceful protest
Having this segregation caused fights, disagreements, and more cases brought into court because if race, but it was the start of a new world. The case of Plessy versus Ferguson started around the 1890s when the Separate Car Act statute was passed in Louisiana. This act stated that any companies carrying people in Louisiana must have separate but equal areas for the whites and blacks. Homer Plessy, in 1992, was one-eight black and purchased a ticket for first class and, sat in the white only area. He was then arrested for violating the new Separate Car Act and was taken to jail.
In New Orleans schools, segregation is still occurring. Due to the outlawed racially segregated public schools, which had been defeated as “separate but equal,” black students couldn’t attended an all white school because of the segregation they had. It’s still like that, but not how it was back then. In Brown vs
Reconstruction in 1865 through 1877 was terminated by Southern men due to their lack of acceptance of African Americans in restricting their political rights, not following the North’s precedence of equality, and the assassination of many a men by their ever so popular Klan. Reformation began after the Civil War which was fought over sectional differences and heavy slavery in the South. Southerns had always been pro slavery which contributed to their low treatment of African Americans as a whole. Once the South lost the War they could no longer legally enslave African Americans, but that did not change their persona in the eyes of the rich white men. Equality was a concept for white men according to the South, especially considering that
In the 1960s they decided to force black and whites to go to school together. Nearly all universities banned blacks from attending. Every white person could go to any university they wanted, but blacks were limited lowly about their education. The great depression made it worse. They felt they were no longer under Abraham Lincoln, but was now under Herbert Hoover.
The Civil war has finally ended and the time for reconstruction is here. The African American slaves of the United States are now free from their despicable owners and there is nothing but opportunity ahead. The 13th, 14th and 15th amendment were passed by congress to ensure equality for former slaves. Slavery has now been abolished, former male slaves now have the right to vote, and also that states could not prohibit citizens from voting based on the color of their skin. All is good in the country and African Americans will finally be looked at as first-class citizens.
The struggle for equal education has been an ongoing struggle in American society. On May 17th, 1945, Brown vs. Board of Education demolished the idea of segregation and sparked the African American Civil Rights movement. However, seven years before this court case, another one was being fought. Mendez vs. Westminster was taking place in Orange County, California, advocating for desegregation of Hispanic schools. Two years after the events that took place in Topeka, Kansas, the court ruled that forced segregation was unconstitutional.
A year before 1820, the U.S. annexed East Florida, which used to be a refuge for fugitive slaves. Also, Virginia banned all mulattos and blacks, including the free ones, from assembling for educational purposes and made it illegal for them to be able to be taught how to read and write. In South Carolina, slaves, and even free blacks were required to wear identification tags. In that state, there were penalties for anyone introducing any written anti-slavery documents and later on, Denmark Vesey organized an immense slave uprising. About forty slaves, and Denmark Vasey were executed while the others were sold out of the state.
A first effect of the Civil war were the new Amendments made in favor of African Americans. The first was the thirteenth Amendment. The emancipation proclamation that Lincoln had put in place only banned slavery out of his jurisdiction. After the Civil war however, the thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude -involuntary slavery- in U.S, except for a crime punishment. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, then by the House on January 31, 1865.