Sternfield likewise noted Hume’s impact on modern operationalists and experimentalists. Hume's work without doubt had a highly significant impact on modern empiricism (3) B.Elkin illustrated that the advertisement of Hume's enquiry had been taken with clout by commentators (4). It was suggested by Hume to Gilbert Elliot that he do not to read the Treatise. Though the principles concerning causality are identical in both books, the differences are much more than rhetorical. Elkin for example indicates the distinction by declaring that causation as a topic is discussed only implicitly in the Enquiry where as it is discussed explicitly in the Treatise (5).
John Dewey’s principle. John Dewey’s principle of teaching states that the core of the educational process is the youngster. He too considered that students learn best when they have to work out problems that are meaningful to them. He got the idea of a mentally active, hands-on learning. He also believed that kids learn effectively through personal conflicts in which they must inspect, gather thoughts, procedure data and put thoughts into practical usage.
For a teacher to be successful assessors, a deep understanding of assessments needs to be developed, and the following questions are able to be answered: why do assessments; when to do assessments; and how to assess in ways that have an impact on students learning in a positive way. Once a teacher has the knowledge to make meaningful decisions based on these questions, assessments that are planned, designed and implemented can be used to provide formative, meaningful information and support learning
34) stated “the constructive alignment based on constructivism in learning and alignment in teaching where aims, objectives and assessment and teaching and learning activities align constructively” (p. 34). The most essential thing is whatever evaluation assignment we utilize it ought to be obviously adjusted to the learning result and showing and learning exercises Assessing the learner’s performances is a crucial tool in the teaching and learning process and must reliable with the objectives and what is taught and learnt such as assessments tasks, learning objectives, and instructional strategies. This paper will be a discussion based on, what is the most appropriate methods of assessment should be use to measure and evaluate student learning? “The research on formative assessment and feedback is reinterpreted to show how these processes can help students take control of their own learning, i.e. become self-regulated learners.
“Preventative discipline” involves the development of effective teaching strategies, tactics, organisation and planning by the teacher. Understanding the power of words and what teachers model to the learner Rogers terms “corrective discipline” and lastly, “supportive discipline” is described as creating a positive and enriched learning environment that also includes the student in developing resolutions to discipline issues (Rogers p. 4). However, Rogers asserts, it is the teacher’s philosophical position, both implicit and explicit, that will be
Each part of the Conceptual Framework is essential and important to being an educator. Being a Reflective Practitioner means that the educator is prepared and knowledgeable in the content that is being taught. Some that is a Transformative Practitioner seeks to motivate students to learn and is creative with study materials. The Culturally Responsible Practitioner looks to all of the national, state, and local materials and standards to educate students. This individual provides order, commitment, and knowledge to students.
Feedback is a significant element in determination of education quality as well as in effective learning where it portrays the learning outcomes for students and the successes for the tutors. There are many aspects that concern educationists with regards to feedback but the relationship between perspectives of learning as well as teaching and feedback stands as the most important among them. Feedback should be conveyed in different modes in a learning environment but whatever mode chosen creates room for dialogue between the tutor and students. Therefore, it is only through feedback that the student engagement relationship with the feedback as well as the tutors’ perceptions of learning, teaching and assessment that such successes can be established. The Rationale Feedback is closely related to learning and teaching theories making it a significant element in learning despite the theories that may be adapted.
If educators can find ways to support autonomous motivation in the delivery of instruction, then optimal learning can be achieved (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). Deci and Ryan (2000) postulate that an individual needs intrinsic motivation as well as three intrinsic psychological needs in order to initiate these behaviours and maintain good psychological well-being and self-determination (as cited by Niemiec & Ryan 2009). These universal needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These components together form the self-determination model which emphasizes supporting student autonomy in order to achieve positive learning outcomes. Intrinsic motivation refers to behaviours done in the absence of external impetus that are inherently interesting and
It is teacher directed and follows a definite structure with specific steps to guide pupils toward achieving clearly defined learning outcomes. The teacher maintains the locus of control over the instructional process and monitors pupils ' learning throughout the process. Benefits of direct instruction include delivering large amounts of information in a timely manner. Also, because this model is
Curriculum models provide a structure for teachers to “systematically and transparently map out the rationale for the use of particular teaching, learning and assessment approaches” in the classroom, and are regarded as an effective and essential framework for successful teachers (O’Neill 2015, p27). Feeding into a particular curricular stance, it is essential to recognise the multiplicity of sources which will govern this individual framework. Oronstein and Hunkins observe that, when designing a curricular stance, educators must first consider the “philosophical and learning theories” which will inform their “design decisions” (2009, p182). This approach is essential to ensure that the curricular approaches one selects are “consonant with
A key to effective PMII is the selection of peers to participate in the intervention (Appendix A). First, it is important to select peers who exhibit good social/language skills; have positive social interactions with the learner with ASD; are generally compliant with adult directives; attend school on a regular basis; have similar schedules/academic groupings as the learner with ASD; and express a willingness to participate. After selecting the peer, one must plan for the actual training session. Peer training sessions should be based on the individual needs of the learner with ASD. It is important to begin the training by teaching peers to recognize and appreciate individual differences.