Racial tensions in Los Angeles came into the public eye when a gang of sailors beat up a group of Mexican-Americans wearing “zoot suits” in June of 1943. This led to the mass incarceration of these individuals known as “pachucos”. This initial incident was followed by days of violence in which servicemen roamed the Los Angeles area and physically assaulted any Mexican American they found in zoot suit apparel. The following two nights, the attacks progressed and though a few sailors were arrested while others were warned not to proceed in further assaults, word of the rioting spread and more military personnel from other areas of the city joined in as well. These events were preceded by increased racial tension between Mexican-Americans and Anglo Saxons.
The Detroit Race Riot of June-July 1943 always had the question mark as to what the cause was for the riots. It has also been known as the “biggest and bloodiest race riots in the history of the United States” of America. A review that was completed by Welfred Holmes reveals some information from the book with the title: The Detroit Race Riot: A Study in Violence by Robert Shogan, and Tom Craig. The information that came to the fore was that the book explained the build-up to the riots as it occurred at least one year before the event. It was revealed that the morale of the Black people (Negroes as the book calls them) was very low. It was so low that it came to the point of not being concerned for their lives when it came to rioting. It
President Franklin D. Roosevelt made a decision that would change the lives of Japanese-Americans on February 19, 1942, two months following the Japanese bombings on Pearl Harbor. On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, authorizing the internment of over 110,000 American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident immigrants from Japan1. Meaning that Japanese-Americans, regardless of their U.S. citizenship, were forced to evacuate their homes and businesses and then proceed to move to remote war relocation and internment camps run by the U.S. Government.
Following the start of World War II and due to bad advice and popular opinion, President Roosevelt's executive order 9066 went into effect. This order began the marshalling of over 100,000 Japanese Americans into internment camps. Camps were located throughout the most harshest western states. This order was enacted to protect the Japanese Americans from harm by the hands of Americans. It was also ordered to prevent any type of espionage because it was believed the Japanese Americans may still have allegiance to their farmer homeland of Japan. Many Americans were worried that people of Japanese heritage, would become spies or saboteurs for Japan. The United States
On the date of Feb 19, 1942 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an executive order. This executive order forced all Japanese American citizens, regardless of their loyalty to the country. It forced them to evacuate their homes and not just the Japanese Americans in a particular part of the country all Japanese Americans would be put into internment camps. At one point in time all of the camps combined held 120,000 Japanese Americans. This was all cause due to the fact that the Japanese Military at the time bombed Pearl Harbor an American Naval base in Hawaii. All of the camps closed by June in 1946. And in 1988 congress awarded restitution payments to each survivor of the Japanese internment camp.
In Mark Bauerlein’s, Negrophobia: A Race Riot in Atlanta, 1906, the political and social events leading to the riot are analyzed. The center of events took place around and inside Atlanta in the early 1900’s. The riot broke out on the evening of September 22, 1906. Prior to the riot in 1906, elections were being held for a new Georgia governor. Bauerlein organizes his book in chronological order to effectively recount the events that led to the riot. He explains political campaigns, newspaper propaganda, and a fear of black takeover were responsible for the riot.
The internment of Japanese-Americans was justified because there were Japanese suspects. Between ten internment camps in Arizona, California, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas, about 250-300 people in each camp were suspects under surveillance. Only around 50-60 people were actually considered dangerous. “It is easy to get on the suspect list, merely a speech in favor of Japan being sufficient to land one there” (Munson 2). Clearly, America was taking extreme precautions. If they would have let one of them leave, they could have rebelled. This is a main reason why Japanese suspects had to be taken away to keep the United States population safe. “It will be hard for them to get near anything to blow up if it is guarded” (Munson 2).
How would you feel if one day you were told to leave your whole life behind to live in captivity just because people halfway across the world did something wrong? This horror story was all too true for the thousands of Japanese Americans alive during World War II. Almost overnight, thousands of proud Japanese Americans living on the west coast were forced to leave their homes and give up the life they knew. The United States government was not justified in the creation of Japanese internment camps because it stripped law-abiding American citizens of their rights out of unjustified fear. Furthermore, the United States should do more to compensate the families of those impacted by internment because the recompense provided initially was minimal and should be considered an affront to the memory of the victims.
Due to the increasing fear of a Japanese attack on the West Coast, Lt. General John L. Dewitt recommended that all people of Japanese descent living in America be removed to the interior of the country. In the article “An American Tragedy: The Internment of Japanese-Americans During World War II” by Norman Y. Mineta, former US Secretary of Transportation, Dewitt backed up his suggestion with rumors that “ethnic Japanese on the West Coast were signaling Japanese ships out in the Pacific ocean” and they “had stockpiled numerous rounds of ammunition and weapons” (Mineta 161). In order to combat this threat in case of enemy invasion, the camps would detain the Japanese Americans so they cannot aid the enemy. The warped logic used to imprison 110,000 people purely based on ethnic background was convincing enough to the American people that they didn’t even question
During World War II, there was an increase of Mexican immigration in the United States, which greatly increased the population. There were significant incidents of racism between Mexican Americans and Americans that affected the view on World War II. Mexican Americans were drafted into or volunteered for the U.S. army. Since there was an increase of immigration, Mexican Americans had more opportunities of getting jobs in the United States, especially in the west. World War II had many effects on Mexican Americans, and that changed the perspective of Mexican Americans nationally and worldwide. Opportunities and tensions from World War II caused Mexican Americans to be victims of racism in public, they were treated differently in the workplace,
The internment of Japanese Americans during WWII was not justified. After Pearl Harbor, many Americans were scared of the Japanese Americans because they could sabotage the U.S. military. To try and solve the fear President Franklin D Roosevelt told the army in Executive order 9066 to relocate all Japanese Americans living on the West Coast. They were relocated to detention centers in the desert. Many of them were in the detention centers for three years.
In the 1940’s there is no doubt that the United States of America was engulfed by mass anti-Japanese hysteria which inevitably bled over into America’s foreign policy. During this period Japanese people living in both Japan and the United States of America were seen as less that human. Japanese-Americans living on the west coast were savagely and unjustifiably uprooted from their daily lives. These Japanese-Americans were pulled from their jobs, schools, and home only to be pushed to
This was brought up in 1944 by the Korematsu v. United States case. This was a case between the United States Supreme Court and Fred Korematsu. Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu was an American civil rights activist who objected to the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II. This case was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066. They found Korematsu guilty of the fact that he was giving President Roosevelt inaccurate information about the Japanese-American citizens. As a result of this case, The Supreme Court ruled that inaccurate and false information had led to the internment decision. The Court also ruled that Japanese-Americans had been subject to racial and economic prejudices during this
One reason why the U.S government’s decision was not justifiable is because many of the Japanese-Americans were innocent people who legally received their American citizenship. For example, in Monica Sone’s “Camp Harmony”,
Citizen 13660 is an illustrated picture book representing the internment of people who were of Japanese descent. More than 110,000 Japanese people were evacuated simply because of their racial background. This has been no reasonable justification as to why the order of 9066 was even made. Fear swept over the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. This caused a mass spread of propaganda which degraded anyone of Japanese ancestry.