The actual term “meritocracy” was adopted by British sociologist Michael Young in his book published in 1958, The rise of meritocracy(INSERT). Young has made it clear in the book and in many interviews that the term has a negative connotation which reflects on his disapproval of it. When the U.S slowly adopted the word, Young expressed his thoughts by stating that “It is good sense to appoint individual people to jobs on their merit. It is the opposite when those who are judged to have merit of a particular kind harden into a new social class without room in it for other” (INSERT). Meritroitic notions date all the way back to Ancient China under famous philosopher Confucius.
Meritocracy is defined as a system in which power is only given to individuals according to their differentiated caliber. The maxim for meritocracy advocates would be “equal opportunity for all”. However, it is not always the case, as that would mean turning a blind eye to differences in genetics, social class, wealth, parental legacies and other educational opportunities. This gives rise to the many failings of meritocracy. Among them, the most serious problems associated with meritocracy would be inequality and elitism.
The fifth example is what the imperialist empires, in regards to other races considered below them and inferior to them, believe their purpose in the world to be. For example, the British empire believed that its role was “educating and Christianizing the ideigenous population to the point where they could expect someday, even if that day were long off, to govern themselves. They believed they were bringing progress and improvement to people who had fallen under the sway of ‘oriental despots’ but who, because they were born rational men and with exposure to liberal reforms, eduation, free trade, and Christianity, could learn the ways of self- government” (Kent 216). Imperialist empires secondarily used race, after intervening with other
The federal bureaucracy as part of the executive branch exercises substantial independence in implementing governmental policies and programs. Most workers in the federal bureaucracy are civil-service employees who are organized under a merit system. The merit system is defined as the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections. This system uses educational and occupational qualifications, testing, and job performance as criteria for electing, hiring and promoting civil servants. Beginning in the federal government in 1888, it was established to improve parts of the governmental work force that had previously been staffed by the political patronage
Federal bureaucracies are a large role in our government by managing thousands of federal programs. These bureaucracies hold a lot of power but still have to be held accountable. The President, Congress, the judicial system, and the federal bureaucracy itself hold federal agencies accountable. The President has the power to hold federal bureaucracies accountable through executive orders but does not personally have the knowledge or time to oversee bureaucracies on a day-to-day basis (Patterson, 2013).
Bureaucracy is a hierarchical authority structure that is large and complex which I organization composes of appointed official’s. Each appointed officials has specialized asked to be accommodated for. A myth is that Americans dislike bureaucracy but it’s not true because Americans are generally pleased with bureaucrats. The myth that bureaucracies are growing bigger each year is half a myth and half-truth.
There exist mixed opinions and perceptions about bureaucracy, and is application in the study of the modern-day organizations. While some feel that bureaucracy is suitable for a majority of 21st century organizations, others have the perception that it is unfit for these organizations. Those who maintain that bureaucracy is appropriate for modern organizations contend that it reinforces employee commitment, motivation, and trust, while easing tension emanating from conflict of interests as employees strive to accomplish their routine tasks. On the other hand, those opposing such proponents argue that bureaucracy is characterized by employee alienation, low commitment levels, and too much inflexibility, making it unsuitable for the rapidly changing
1 Academic Oligarchy Model As Olson the model is called “community of scholars” and characterized as guided by the ideal of truth finding, where quality is judged by academic criteria above all others and institutional autonomy is considered a prerequisite for the very existence of the university. Academia is a self-standing and self-governing “Republic of Science”, based on collegial approaches to organization and decision-making. Here higher education is governed by internal factors and actors, who share the same norms and objectives (Olsen, 2005, pp. 8–10).
3. Leadership styles and team Productivity Leadership styles vary from person to person depending on how they provide direction, implement plans, and motivate people. The leadership styles practiced by transformation leaders will affect the outcome. Two of the most common leadership styles are task-oriented and people-oriented (also known as relationship-oriented). Each of these styles has their pros and cons, and either one can be perfect for any given situation.
Question 1: In the government, government bureaucrat is the person who is working in the government to keep the law consistency and also help the government to reduce the workload. Even though the executive branch controls the majority of the federal bureaucracy, but the Congress and the courts also have some influences to the federal bureaucracy, and they also have their own bureaucracy. The government bureaucracy represents a very important role in the government because after the government makes the decision, there must be a group to do and operate those works and decisions.
It is necessary to lay down statutory guidelines regarding the procedure to be followed by the law enforcement officials during investigation of the criminal offences so that they do not resort to illegal arrests, unlawful searches and seizures, coercive interrogation and illicit means to collect evidence. Procedural norms are essential for regulating the proceedings in the court of law. The procedural provisions are indispensable components of any penal statue. In the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, all the procedures required to be followed by the enforcement officials during the investigation have been exhaustively dealt with.
The most important thing that the bureaucracy does is implement policy. Congress and the President make the policies and laws, but they have someone else (the bureaucracy) to implement them. However, they also make policy by rule-making (process of defining rules or standards that apply uniformly to classes of individuals, events, and activities). Also, according to Jillson (2016), "Congress passes laws that authorize government programs, the bureaucracy then writes specific rules that define how the program will be administered." So, when the bureaucracy makes rules you have to obey them because they have the force of law.
Debate on the Effectiveness of Civil Judicial and Administrative Forfeitures An administrative forfeiture occurs when a forfeiture of property takes place, and the owner of the forfeited property does not contest the forfeiture (McCaw, 2010). If the property owner contests for the forfeiture, the government can commence with a civil judicial forfeiture by filing a civil case in district courts. Unlike the criminal forfeiture, administrative and civil judicial forfeiture have limited legal process following the forfeiture of property (Nikolov, 2011). For this reason, these two processes have received a lot of critics including the misuse of these two processes.
Basically, organizational culture refers to a system of shared attitudes, values, behaviors, and beliefs adopted by employees of a certain company or organization, affecting its function, employees’ behaviors, and overall wellbeing. In organizational analysis, culture describes the influence and interaction among employees and their workplace as forms of social groups. Since, the organizational culture has been a subject of investigation for many decades, concerning the distinctions between values and expectations of employees with different cultural backgrounds. Frequently, several problems occur during international business activities and working settings are imperfectly recognized to professional incompetence while they most doubtlessly
Over the past decades, mergers and acquisitions (M&As) have become increasingly common as a means for organizations to grow fast and offer an alternative to internal, organic growth (Teerikangas & Very, 2006). Nonetheless, although M&As provide unique opportunities for expansion, their success rates are relatively low and many do not meet expectations. Since financial and strategic aspects fall short in explaining these mediocre outcomes (King et al., 2004), researchers have shown a growing interest on the human factors during post-merger integration (Cartwright & McCarthy, 2005). Indeed, employees’ perceptions of the operation are important in the integration phase (Zaheer et al., 2003), and academics frequently refer to organizational culture
The post-bureaucratic environment has enabled an evolution of managerial practices in a multitude of areas, none more evident than in the practice of leadership. Thus one can argue that not only have the practices of leadership changed, but they have also become far more important in the post-bureaucratic era. As Meindl, Ehrcuh and Dukerich note, it is the ‘sheer volume of theory and research’ in recent decades that is ‘testimony to the prominence of leadership’ and the ’collective effort’ of desire to understand it. To understand how leadership practices have changed however, an understanding of both the bureaucratic approach and the vast array of more contemporary leadership styles and theories that followed must be studied. Not only does
In reading the articles and gaining understanding of the sociology of deviant behavior from research, I have found it rather interesting to see the different ways in which deviance is defined. Many sociologists have different interpretations as to what the term means. Deviance is a study that is not limited to crime, but it is the part that I have found to be interesting. Crime is a norm violation and it is interesting to see how different parts of the world view this aspect. For example, it is interesting to note that in Islam culture a woman must wear a hijab.
Social stratification is a part of every society and is composed of many dimensions. The different terrorists of sociology look at social stratification and poverty in different ways, some positively and some negatively. In the U.S. and worldwide, economic inequality is present and the ways of society allow poverty’s existence to continue. Social stratification is the hierarchal differences of individuals in society. The first dimension of social stratification is social class.
Sixteen year old Holden Caulfield is the narrator and the main character of The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. Holden constantly encounters people who strike him as “phony,” a word he applies to anything that is unauthentic or otherwise fake. Throughout this Holden reveals to us that he hates phonies, while still calling himself a “terrific liar”. Throughout the book Holden constantly expresses his hatred for “phonies.”