Ethanol Essays

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    O-Vanillin Lab Report

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    The purpose of this experiment is to perform a two step reductive amination using o-vanillin with p-toluidine to synthesize an imine derivative. In this experiment, 0.386 g of o-vanillin and 0.276 g of p-toluidine were mixed into an Erlenmeyer flask. The o-vanillin turned from a green powder to orange layer as it mixed with p-toludine, which was originally a white solid. Ethanol was added as a solvent for this reaction. Sodium borohydride was added in slow portion as the reducing agent, dissolving the precipitate into a yellowish lime solution.

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    thanol is the desired product for the experiment, and it can be produced in various methods. Traditionally, it can be produced by the fermentation of sugar, starches, or cellulose. Synthetic ethanol can also be produced from ethene with the use of steam and catalyst. In scheme 1, it shows the reaction of how ethene converts into ethanol. Using catalyst, often time H3PO4, and running the reaction in 300°C with high pressure and high steam, ethene will react with water and produces ethanol.

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    Nonetheless, the light yellow solid was purified by using the recrystallization technique. The formation of o-nitroacetanilide is inevitable and in order to eliminate it, 95% ethanol is used as the solvent of choice. The ortho isomer is soluble in the cold alcohol solution whereas p-nitroacetanilide in insoluble. As a result, the ortho isomer remains in the liquid solution and the final product, the p-nitroacetanilide is isolated with a final vacuum

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    “BAC ( Blood Alcohol Content) is the concentration of alcohol in a person’s blood. It is most commonly used as a metric of intoxication for legal or medical purposes. It is usually expressed as a fractional percentage in terms of volume of alcohol per litre of blood in the body.1 ………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.Definition from “Wikipedia” Infact BAC ( Blood Alcohol Content) is used for medical purposes only within a permissible limits.

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    1 2-Propanediol Analysis

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    Here again, each mole of lactic acid has been altered into approximately 0.50001 M acetic acid, 0.50002 M in 1, 2-propanediol and traces of ethanol. Furthermore the acidic conditions are necessary to produce the acid lactic cells degrading the

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    2.3. Synthesis of 2-(2-(Morpholinomethyl)-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide (4) To a solution of compound 3 (0.01 M, 2.89 g) in methanol (60 mL), 99% hydrazine hydrate (1 mL) was added and the mixture was refluxed for 6 h. The reaction mixture was cooled and the solid thus obtained was filtered, washed with cold water and recrystallized with ethanol to obtain the compound 4. 2.4.

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    While under the UV light the mixtures appeared a purple colour. The R_fValue Starting material: R_F=2.6/4.5 = 0.58 The sum: R_F=2.55/4.5 = 0.57

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    Synthesis of 3-[5-(4-substituted) phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2yl]-2-styrylquinazoline-4(3H)-ones was carried out by following steps: Step 1: Synthesis of 4- substituted benzaldehyde semicarbazon51(2) Semicarbazide Hydrochloride (0.1M) and sodium acetate (0.2M) was added and dissolved in 15-20ml of distilled water placed in flat-bottomed flask. In a separate beaker containing required aromatic aldehyde (1) (0.1M) was dissolved in aldehyde free alcohol. This ethanolic aromatic aldehyde solution was added slowly to the solution of semicarbazide hydrochloride.

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    Tramadol: A Case Study

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    Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic used to relief pain. It is an odorless powder, which is white, bitter, and crystalline in shape and it is readily soluble in water and ethanol. The molecular formula of tramadol is C16 H25 NO2 . HCl and figure 1 shows the chemical structure of tramadol. In the 1960s, Grünenthal GmbH developed tramadol.

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    What’s the first thing that comes to your mind when I mention, ‘alcohol’? Do you picture yourself sitting at a bar with a drink in your hand, or maybe just simply cracking open a cold one with the boys? What if I were to tell you that the same substance found in your favourite adult beverages can be used to save lives? As surprising as it may seem, alcohol can be used to treat cancer.

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    DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE ETHANOL IN BEVERAGES 1. Introduction to Gas Chromatography Gas chromatography is a very powerful separation technique for compounds that are reasonably volatile. The components of a sample partitions into two phases, the 1st of these phases is a immobile bed with a great surface area, and the other is a gas phase that permeates through the immobile bed. The sample is evaporated and passed by the mobile gas phase or the carrier gas through the column. Samples separates into the stationary liquid phase, based on their solubilities at the given temperature.

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    Vinegar Experiment

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    The acetic acid has a molecular formula which is, CH₃COOH. It has its formula for neutralization which is; CH₃COOH + NaOH CH₃COONa + H₂O (Cleenwerck, 2002). The equation means the reaction of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide giving sodium acetate and water as products. The process is a fermentative one meaning it can occur in the absence or presence of oxygen.

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    Introduction: Quetiapine Fumarate (QF) is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. QF possesses good solubility in aqueous fluids (1) and ethanol. Quetiapine is available in the market with the brand name of Seroquel XL (2). Inadvertent, rapid drug release in a small period of time of the entire amount or a significant fraction of the drug contained in a prolonged release dosage form is often referred to as “dose dumping”. Jhonson F. et al.

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    Drug Carrier Preparation

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    The ether injection technique was totally different from ethanol injection since ether was immiscible with aqueous solvent. Moreover, for the ether injection, ether was slowly injected while for the ethanol injection, ethanol was rapidly injected to an excess of buffer (Dua, Rana, & Bhandari, 2012). The advantage of ether injection compared to ethanol injection was that it can produce liposomes with high proportion of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and thus can serve high encapsulation efficiency (A. Laouini et al.,

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    3. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening of the roots of P. zeylanica showed the presence of sugars, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, quinones, phenols, and tannins (Table 11). Alkaloid was seen in ethyl acetate and methanol extracts while terpenoid was noticed only in the chloroform extract. Flavonoid was present only in the methanol extract.

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    Naphthalene Lab Report

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    However, it dissolved in non-polar solvent toluene and slightly in ethanol, which means naphthalene is non-polar. It has high resistivity in aqueous solution and solid form, and respective melting point. The sample was given as solid with large shiny white crystals. Silicon carbide was classified in this experiment as macromolecular structure. This compound was insoluble at any type of solvent both polar and non-polar.

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    Introduction: Benzaldehyde and acetone in ethanol solvent undergoes cross aldol condensation reaction to give dibenzalacetone. This reaction known as the Claisen-Schmidt reaction. Reaction: The benzalacetone, formed as an intermediate. Benzalacetone once formed, then easily react with another molecule of benzaldehyde to give dibenzalacetone.

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    Syrene Research Paper

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    Representation of 1.3-butadiene (mw: 54.09 g/mol) Styrene: A colorless to yellowish liquid that produce polystyrene by homopolymerization. Styrene is a derivative of benzene and could be found in small quantities in plants and foods. It is slightly soluble in water and very soluble in ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide.

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    Trigonometry Lab Report

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    S. DRUG SUBSTANCE S1. General Information S1.1 Nomenclature Table 84 Nomenclature of Drug Substance International Nonproprietary Name (INN) Levofloxacin Hemihydrate Chemical Name 7H-Pyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid, 9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-hydrate (2:1), (S)-.(-)-(S)-9-Fluoro-2,3-dihydro-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7Hpyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid, hemihydrates Generic name Levofloxacin Hemihydrate CAS Number [138199-71-0] S1.2 Structure and attachment for structure of drug substance Table 85 Structure of Drug Substance Structural Formula : C18H20FN3O4 •½

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    This produced the parent C40 carbon skeleton from which all the individual variations are derived (Britton, 1995). Carotenoids are hydrophobic, lipophilic substances, and are virtually insoluble in water. They dissolve in fat solvents such as acetone, alcohol, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and chloroform. Carotenes are readily soluble in petroleum ether and hexane. Xanthophylls dissolve best in methanol and ethanol.

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