Carotenoids are a family of pigmented compounds that are synthesized by plants and microorganisms Carotenoids are a family of pigmented compounds that are synthesized by plants and microorganisms but not animals. In plants, they contribute to the photosynthetic machinery and protect them against photo-damage (Rao and Rao, 2007). Carotenoids are synthesized de novo not only in all photosynthetic organisms, such as plants (including algae) and cyanobacteria but also in some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi (Lu and Li, 2008). It is estimated that nature produces about 100 million tons of carotenoids annually (Rodriguez-Amaya, 1997). Carotenoids represent a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. They contribute to the red,
At room temperature is a colorless gas with an odor similar to gasoline. It is an alkene used to manufacture rubber by addition polymerization. It has two C-C double bonds in its structure which allows the compound to form a wide variety of polymers including ABS. This compound is a toxic gas listed as a human carcinogen.
Different compounds can be classified based on the various chemical and physical properties such as solubility, conductivity, and melting point. Most of the chemical substances have unique features that allows sorting them to ionic, molecular, macromolecular and metallic compounds. Significantly, compounds divides into polar and non-polar, which can be checked by testing with polar and non-polar solvents. Electrical resistance related to the ability of the substance conduct electricity. Resistivity measured by ohmmeter classifies compound with under 2000 ohms as good conductors, which are usually aqueous ionic and solid metallic, between 2000-20,000 ohms as weak conductors, and above 20,000 ohms are non-conducting such as
The preliminary phytochemical screening of the roots of P. zeylanica showed the presence of sugars, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, quinones, phenols, and tannins (Table 11). Alkaloid was seen in ethyl acetate and methanol extracts while terpenoid was noticed only in the chloroform extract. Flavonoid was present only in the methanol extract.
Intravenous administration involved injection which was directly into the vein. For this administration, the size of the carrier must be small to serve a better therapeutic efficiency. The advantage of this administration was a drug can be delivered immediately into the blood stream and the effect of drugs can act rapidly compared to others route. However, the effect of drug given by this route can withstand for a shorter time. Hence, some active ingredients must be given continuous or the concentration of drugs can be increase to retain the effect of drug constant. The disadvantage for this administration included potential pain from the injection that leads to discomfort for the patient and can be difficult to administer for patient who was obese.
Quetiapine Fumarate (QF) is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. QF possesses good solubility in aqueous fluids (1) and ethanol. Quetiapine is available in the market with the brand name of Seroquel XL (2). Inadvertent, rapid drug release in a small period of time of the entire amount or a significant fraction of the drug contained in a prolonged release dosage form is often referred to as “dose dumping”. Jhonson F. et al. highlighted that in United States, the dose dumping in general and alcohol induced dose dumping in particular is considered as a serious concern for orally administered prolonged release dosage forms (3). Subjuct to the therapeutic
The GC ethanol analysis method described above has a simple concept, its rapid, and extremely accurate, determining ethanol precisely without interference from other beverage components. With this method, it takes only 7 to 8 min to complete a sample analysis for the determination of ethanol content in a beverage sample. Analyst handling is minimized to prevent deviation in results or possible human error. This method requires a gas chromatograph and a digital integrator, both reasonably expensive and sophisticated pieces of equipment.
What’s the first thing that comes to your mind when I mention, ‘alcohol’? Do you picture yourself sitting at a bar with a drink in your hand, or maybe just simply cracking open a cold one with the boys? What if I were to tell you that the same substance found in your favourite adult beverages can be used to save lives? As surprising as it may seem, alcohol can be used to treat cancer.
The purpose of this experiment is to perform a two step reductive amination using o-vanillin with p-toluidine to synthesize an imine derivative. In this experiment, 0.386 g of o-vanillin and 0.276 g of p-toluidine were mixed into an Erlenmeyer flask. The o-vanillin turned from a green powder to orange layer as it mixed with p-toludine, which was originally a white solid. Ethanol was added as a solvent for this reaction. Sodium borohydride was added in slow portion as the reducing agent, dissolving the precipitate into a yellowish lime solution. Glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride were added to the mixture while refluxing, which converted the lime colored solution into a clear mixture. The flask was cooled in an ice bath and the solution
Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic used to relief pain. It is an odorless powder, which is white, bitter, and crystalline in shape and it is readily soluble in water and ethanol. The molecular formula of tramadol is C16 H25 NO2 . HCl and figure 1 shows the chemical structure of tramadol. In the 1960s, Grünenthal GmbH developed tramadol. It has an analgesic potency that is about one tenth of that of morphine. In addition to its pain relieving properties, it has anti-depressive and anxiolytic properties (Kusari ,S., etall,2015). Tramadol 's metabolism occurs in the liver by demethylation, which is mediated by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, glucuronidation, and sulfation. Metabolism of tramadol via CYP2D6 result in the generation of an active metabolite
Semicarbazide Hydrochloride (0.1M) and sodium acetate (0.2M) was added and dissolved in 15-20ml of distilled water placed in flat-bottomed flask. In a separate beaker containing required aromatic aldehyde (1) (0.1M) was dissolved in aldehyde free alcohol. This ethanolic aromatic aldehyde solution was added slowly to the solution of semicarbazide hydrochloride. The precipitate, which gets separated, was filtered, dried and recrystallised from 95% hot ethanol.
An aldehyde reaction is when aldehydes and keytones, both containing an α-hydrogen in the presence of an alkali group condenses and forms an enone. Acetone has α-hydrogens on each side. The proton can be removed and therefore giving a nucleophile anion. The aldehyde carbonyl is more reactive than the keytone and so it reacts rapidly with the anion. This product undergoes base catalysed hydration giving dibenzalacetone. Sodium hydroxide is a catalyst in the reaction because the NaOH reacts with water. Following this is then the
To a solution of compound 3 (0.01 M, 2.89 g) in methanol (60 mL), 99% hydrazine hydrate (1 mL) was added and the mixture was refluxed for 6 h. The reaction mixture was cooled and the solid thus obtained was filtered, washed with cold water and recrystallized with ethanol to obtain the compound 4.
One day I was reading a daily newspaper where I found an editorial on the topic of amount of drug in the blood stream. So I kept on thinking and at a result I realised to explore my internal assessment on this topic. I was very much curious about to know the amount of alcohol consumed by the people having different weight and physical capacity/strength. Therefore I am planning to explore in this internal
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions that take place on benzene, and how the presence of substituents in the ring affect the orientation of the incoming electrophile. Using acetanilide, as the starting material, glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were mixed and stirred to produce p-nitroacetanilide. In a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 3.305 g of acetanilide were allowed to mix with 5.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. This mixture was warmed in a hot plate with constantly stirring at a lukewarm temperature so as to avoid excess heating. If this happens, the mixture boils and it would be necessary to start the experiment all over again. After obtaining an homogeneous mixture, the flask was placed in an ice bath during five minutes next to a graduated cylinder containing 5.0 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid. The temperature of the ice bath was recorded to be 1.1 °C. Likewise, a second graduated cylinder containing 1.8 mL of nitric acid and 2.5 mL of sulfuric acid was immersed in the cold ice bath to keep the three different solutions at the same temperature.
thanol is the desired product for the experiment, and it can be produced in various methods. Traditionally, it can be produced by the fermentation of sugar, starches, or cellulose. Synthetic ethanol can also be produced from ethene with the use of steam and catalyst. In scheme 1, it shows the reaction of how ethene converts into ethanol. Using catalyst, often time H3PO4, and running the reaction in 300°C with high pressure and high steam, ethene will react with water and produces ethanol.