The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States and Great Britain from June 18, 1812, to February 17, 1815. It is often referred to as America's Second Revolutionary War because it helped shape the identity of the nation during its infancy. The war was precipitated by tensions over trade restrictions imposed on both sides by their respective governments, but ultimately resulted in an American victory that established them as an independent power on the world stage. The war also had significant implications for Native Americans living in North America; many tribes were forced to relocate due to hostilities or treaties signed with either side.
The most notable battles include those at Fort McHenry (September 13–14) and New Orleans (January 8). These engagements saw British forces defeated decisively despite having numerical superiority in both cases. Following these losses, Britain agreed to terms dictated by President James Madison, which included recognition of U.S. sovereignty along with other territorial concessions such as ceding much of the present-day Michigan Territory and some parts of Maine back to the United States. As part of this agreement, all slaves held within U.S. borders were freed immediately following ratification on April 4th, 1815, making it one more example of several instances where slavery has been abolished through warfare rather than legislation alone.