1. Write a sentence for each of these mechanisms describing the manner in which the DNA can be transferred from one cell to another. Transformation: During transformation pieces of genetic instructions are released by a bacterium. Another bacterium, picks up the DNA into its own genome. Bacteria taking up foreign DNA is known as transformation.
The tube was placed back in incubation for 96 more hours to observe any more positives. 2.10 Catalase Test A trypticase soy agar plate was used and after incubation, four drops of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide was added to the plate to flow over the bacterial growth. A presence of bubbling was observed. 2.11 Starch Hydrolysis A starch agar plate was inoculated with a streak of the unknown bacteria and then incubated. On the second day of incubation, the plate was removed from the incubator and placed over a hot plate heating Iodine solids.
Mutations are generally deleterious and are selected against. But the genome of a species can undergo another type of change, gene duplication, which actually favors mutational events. If a single gene that is important undergoes a duplication, mutation in the duplicated copy would not necessarily reduce the fitness of the individual because it still would have a functioning copy of the original gene. With this adaptive constraint removed, further changes can occur that generate a new gene that has a similar function in the organism, but may function at a specific time in development, or in a unique location in the individual. This type of evolution generates multigene families.
Multigene disorders - Conditions or disorders that arise from mutations in a single gene are the best candidates for gene therapy. Unfortunately, some the most commonly occurring disorders, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, Alzheimer 's disease, arthritis, and diabetes, are caused by the combined effects of variations in many genes. Multigene or multifactorial
Be set up to talk about how life is reliant upon both sorts of cell multiplication. Meiosis is the procedure of two genes which originate from a mother and a father and the characteristics from the mother and father will be passed down to their offspring. The children will originate from both parents versus one parent; this procedure is called sexual multiplication. As indicated by Simon (2013) "every children of sexual multiplication acquires a one of a kind blend of qualities from its two parents, and this consolidated arrangement of genes projects a one of a kind mix of attributes. Accordingly, sexual proliferation can deliver gigantic assortment among offspring.
Battling Pollution with the help of Microbes: Bioremediation is “the process of using living organisms (e.g., bacteria) to clean up oil spills or remove other pollutants from soil, water, and waste water.” This process largely rely upon the enzymatic activities of the living organisms, usually the microbes to catalyze the destruction of pollutants or their transformation to less harmful forms. Microbes are extraordinary diverse in their properties. Their environment restoration activity is highly based upon factors like ambient environmental conditions, composition of the microbial community, nature and amount of the pollutant present in that particular area. Other factors include pH., temperature, lack of nutrients and molecular oxygen. (2) There are three categories of pollutants; • Organic pollutants: these are naturally occurring in the environment and are catabolized by the micro flora of the region naturally.
• While a study done in Saudi Arabia (2004-2009) said that most of them showed resistance to Gentamycin while >90% showed susceptibility to TMP-SMX. Based on experiments performed : • The results obtained by the Experiment performed in the microbiology lab by Ariya Nandakumar on 17TH March 2015, The bacteria was allowed to grow on LB agar prepared under sterile conditions and then an antibiotic was introduced to two different agar plates, and it was observed that the organism developed an inhibition zone for both Amikacin and Gentamycin. • Amikacin inhibition zone is about 1.8 cm. • Whereas Gentamycin hindrance zone was 2.5 cm. The inhibition zone obtained for amikacin : 1.8cm The inhibition zone obtained for Gentamycin is 2.5cm 2.3 From the studies, we can conclude that this organism has resistance to a variety of antibiotics but the result obtained in the microbiology lab at Bits Pilani Dubai was contradictory (for
Many different techniques have been used to identify mutant strains of the bacteria and as well as this, improve the ability of their genes to complete their job. Genes involved in photosynthesis have been manipulated to be able to capture more light so they will be able to produce more energy and genes involved in nitrogen fixation have
MATAG inflorescence were collected from Department of Agriculture Terengganu’s farm. The samples were stored in ice-box to maintain its freshness prior to culture. B. Optimization of Sterilization Procedure The rachillae bearing inflorescence were cut off from the spadices and then were washed under run-ning tap water for 15 to 20 minutes to remove dirt and debris. The male inflorescence was isolated from rachillae and subjected to three different method of sterilization (as described in Table 1). C. Media Compositions and Growth Conditions The basal media used for this experiment were Y3 media (Eeuwens, 1976).
Chemical mutagens are sodium azide, ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), hydrogen fluoride (HF), diethyl sulphate, hydroxylamine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Physical mutagens usually cause large mutations (large-scale deletions of DNA), while chemical mutagens usually cause point mutations (Kozjak and Meglič, 2012). 3.2. Insertion