There is much controversy with regards to animal testing for medical research and there has been throughout the centuries. We can trace the issue back all the way to the 4th century when we have the first record of animal experimentation, Aristotle dissecting animals for study. In the 1600s, scientists began using animals as a way to explore the human body which led to many advancements in the medical field. Such advancements include Emil von Bering finding a cure for diphtheria toxin for guinea pigs; further research allowed him to produce a diphtheria vaccine for humans (Bright).In spite of these many medical achievements brought on through the use of animal testing, there are still those that argue the practice is not justifiable and should …show more content…
We have the one extreme in which animals are for man 's use and we can use them as we see fit, "And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" (God). There is also the other extreme that feel animals should be treated as equals and therefore not be harmed for food or clothes much less testing "For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them: as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast: for all is vanity" (God). An ethical debate can often be as easily resolved as a religious one-impossible; however, while animal testing is an absolute must for advancements in the medical field, animal cruelty is not. Thus, in order to prevent more abuse, the three R(s) were created as a set of principles "underpinning the humane use of animals in scientific research" (Procedures). Any researcher who follows these guidelines while conducting animal tests must show that there is no other alternative and minimize the pain or stress to which the animal will be subjected. To explain further, this method consists of: replacement-which is …show more content…
The three R(s) fuel the fire of the argument that alternatives should be used in place of animal testing. Kelly Overton, a renowned activist, claims in her article Stop Animal Testing that animal testing is an obsolete practice by comparing it to old telegrams and eight track tapes. There are many others like her that believe animal testing should be replaced with newer methods such as stem cell research. However, the ethical debate of using animals for testing pales in comparison to the ethical debate of using stem cells; more studies need to be conducted before stem cells can be fully utilized but it does have great potential. According to PLOS Biology, a renowned peer reviewed scientific journal, it is possible for alternatives to be used as a complementary resource with the research of toxicology but more research and time is needed before they can completely replace animal testing in most cases. A poll that was taken in 2006 asked natural scientists to rate the importance of animal testing the results were as follows: "on a scale of 1 (not at all necessary) to 4 (essential), three quarters of all respondents, including those who do not work with animals themselves, said it was essential" (Ainsworth). That is not to say that we should give up on these alternatives, after all, they do have the potential to be more effective and more accurate than animal testing. The three R(s), which are currently the most accepted guidelines, advocate the use of alternative wherever
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Animal testing is not ok for so many reasons. The first I have to say is about the hardship and pain to the animals. Animals feel pain along with humans, so why do we test on them? What if a bunch of giant animals took you from your natural home, nearly starved you, then tested on you with weird equipment in someplace strange? Yeah, pretty awful.
-Scientists have a specific responsibility to evade unnecessarily and minimize the pain in the treatments (replacement reduction refinement 3Rs). (Gannon,2007,p.519,para.4). Source 3 The ethics of animal research (Simon festing and Robin Wilkinson) -Implementation of laws that enables people to know more about the researches -The conducted regulated and controlled animal researches in addition to the implementation of the 3Rs and the use of compute models, human cell lines helped to lower our reliance on animals ” Approximately 2.7 million regulated animal procedures were conducted in 2003 in the UK—half the number performed 30 years ago”(Festing &Wilkinson,2007,p.528,para.3). -There exist solution to reduce animal testing like the use of cell culture based tests and Microdosing techniques , the inherent limitation of some non animal tests, and good experimental design and many others techniques like cooling and magnetic resonance thathelps to reduce the use of animals.
According to my research, animals has been in used for scientific testing early as 500 B.C. Scientist use animals purposely for medical treatment, determine the toxicity of medications, check the safety of products destined for human use, and other biomedical, commercial, and healthcare uses (Animal Testing, 4). It is estimated that over 26 million animals are used yearly in the U.S for scientific testing or other purpose. The reason why animals testing is so important for scientist and ultimately human race is because, animals testing allow the progress of life saving treatment for humans and animals. Second profound reason is, there no alternative means of conducting research that requires a complete living organism. The useage of animals
Imagine an enraged animal rights activist charging toward a scientist in a white lab coat, desperate to free the little mice that are being used as test subjects. Although comical, this scene may be quite accurate when describing the passion that animal lovers have when it comes to the touchy subject of animal testing. For centuries, animal testing has been used in the medical research field, however many are now beginning to question whether it is ethical. Millions of animals are killed per year due to animal testing, so is this practice worth banning? Animal testing is a controversial subject, with supporters pointing out the medical advances that have stemmed from animal research and animal rights activists declaring it cruel and immoral.
The use of the animals in the past, present, and future are getting worse as the time goes on. Places such as a laboratory or factory, who make the medications for humans, do not work as expected, and most labs do not even know about because of the things they do. By making all products non-animal tested it would save money, it would save many animals lives, and it would make customers rather that it was not tested. An alternative to animal testing is to use electronic devices because they are so advanced now they could simulate the same thing. All in all animal testing should not be
Animal testing is defined as “the use of non-human animals in research and development projects, especially for purposes of determining the safety of substances such as foods or drugs” (Dictionary.com). This experimentation has been practiced since around 500 BCE, and has allowed the human race to discover many things that otherwise would have not been discovered (ProCon). The use of animal testing has increased, due to its many necessary benefits, such as: helping form vaccinations and uncovering new diseases in the specific species being tested on (AALAS). However, many animal activist groups such as, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), have spoken out against the issue. These groups claim animal testing to be “inhumane”
Introduction Animals testing have significantly contributed to the advancement of scientific knowledge in general and to biomedical progress specifically. Many example showing that laboratory animals in medical development and other aspects have significantly influenced human health and reduced suffering, for example improved diagnosis of infectious disease (Hau, Jann, Schapiro & Steven, 2002). But since 1960s and 1970s, animals testing protests has gained prominence and strength, people start to argue is it moral to continue “cruel” animal testing. Animal Testing is a Moral Act In the rest of this article, I shall apply different concept under utilitarianism try to discuss whether animal testing are moral acts. It is important to notice that (1) in this article, applying the general idea of utilitarianism which is “the greatest happiness of greatest number” and (2) the animals testing under the rules and regulations.
Many people have different ideas on animal testing and if it is or is not appropriate for medical research. Many disagree, but there are some that think it’s necessary for testing to be done. Animal testing is necessary because it helps develop life saving medical treatments for not only humans, but animals, and it helps determine how medicine will react to the human body. Animal testing is appropriate for medical research because testing helps develop life saving medical treatments for humans. Without testing, scientist wouldn’t have found ways to help people with breast cancer or childhood Leukemia.
Throughout thousands of years, animal testing has been proven to be beneficial for the human race. While it has done a wonderful job for us, it has only injured, killed and put an enormous amount of pain on animals. The exact number of animals used in research yearly is unknown, due to official government statistics not including mice, rats, birds, fish, or other animals used for testing: some estimates put the total number to be 26 million. The use of animals for scientific research is cruel and inhumane, while both humans and animals share similar traits, they are both made up of completely different genes making them poor test subjects to begin with and may mislead or cause side effects for both parties.
In conclusion, society’s attitude towards animal testing is quite balanced. There is not one particular research where society is all for or against the subject of animals in medical research. Over the past 20 years many individuals attitude has change as some are beginning to show support for testing as they have seen the now breakthrough’s that are helping critically ill patients. Medical research has not particularly been affected by society’s attitudes, research has become more stronger over the years as individuals are beginning to see the breakthroughs and results from the testings, this has been shown in surveys by Pifer (1994) and Corwin (1999). There need to be more consideration for further research on society’s attitude toward
People see all different sides of animal testing. If we did not use animals for testing we would miss out on some life-changing treatments for people who are suffering from terrible diseases. Even though we have not found cures for every disease in the world, we have found cures for many of them. Animal testing is something that has been used for many of years, so why should it stop now? Animals should be used for medical research, because the tests saves peoples lives, they show what illnesses can be cured, and they increase the knowledge of the scientists.
Animals Testing Is animal testing necessary?. Should we ban expending animals in medical research or not?. More than 26 million animals are used in different countries like the United States and Canada. Animal testing may by defining as the use of animals in experiments and research that seeks to control the variable that impacts the behavior or biological system under study. Using large number of animals is mainly meant to find treatments and cure for certain diseases.
Animal testing is a phrase that most people have heard but are perhaps still unsure of exactly what it involve. Whether it is called animal testing, experimentation or research, it should be defined as all testing methods on animals including, medical exploration, cosmetics, toxicology trialing, and psychological examination involving animal subjects. It is used to assess the safety and effectiveness of medications and beauty products as well as understanding how the human physiology works. While supporters believe it is necessary practice, those against animal testing believe that it involves torture and suffering to animals. Medical research is the hardest case of proposition in the debate whether animal testing should be banned or not, since it has previously yielded substantial benefits for humanity.
As stated above, animals should be continued to be used in research testing because it leads to more vaccinations for humans and animals. In “Use of Animals in Biomedical Research”, the American Medical Association states “A longer lifespan has been achieved, decreased infant mortality has occurred, effective treatments have been developed for many