Annex 1 Heart Murmur

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Annexe 1 : Heart murmur

1. An unusual sound coming from the heart that can be detected by a stethoscope. These noises are caused by an abnormal turbulence produced when blood flows across one of the heart (valves, cardiac chambers) and or vessels close to the heart

Heart murmurs are classified by the intensity of the sound heard: Stage I (murmur is of low intensity and can hardly be heard) to Stage VI (murmur is extremely loud).

Cardiac murmurs can be present at birth (congenital; often caused by malformations) or acquired and manifests later in the animals life. (Ex: disease of the cardiac muscles, disease of the cardiac valves, etc.).

It is important to note that many animals with heart murmurs can live a long and happy life without
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It is important to discuss these options with your veterinarian and have your animal seen regularly as well as keeping your pet at a healthy weight.
It is worth noting that on a general basis a luxation at grade 1 does not necessitate surgery, grade II could benefit from surgery depending on wear/pain and inflammation of the knee, and grade III and IV necessitate surgery.

Annex 4: Umbilical Hernia

An umbilical hernia is an undesired communication between the interior of the abdomen and the area bellow the skin (subcutaneous) in the area of the umbilicus (belly button). This communication is due to the fact that the muscle wall of the animal did not close completely after the mother cut the umbilical cord at birth.

Often we find belly fat but sometimes intestines can pass through the opening.

Small hernias (non-reducible), where the contents cannot be put back through the abdominal wall, by pressure under the skin or navel. These seldom cause problems and can often be left alone. It is however recommended that it be checked regularly to ensure the texture, size and color have not changes. If you notice any changes quickly consult with your

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