Currents also contribute to regulating climate patterns and human activities that occur out in the ocean. The ocean absorbs a large amount of heat that is trapped in the atmosphere. Ocean currents help redistribute that heat absorbed by warm water from the equatorial regions flowing to the poles and cool water from the poles flowing back to equatorial regions. The Conveyor belt helps regulate the earth’s temperature by this continuous circulation of warm and cold water around the globe that counteracts the uneven solar radiation that reaches the earth’s surface. Without the conveyor belt, regional areas would have been more extreme—very hot at the equator and freezing cold at the poles—and far less of earth’s land would have been habitable.
o Oceans and air currents transfer heat to one another. Ocean currents depend on the temperatures of the air, gravity, tides, the salt-content (density) of the water itself, and as always, carbon dioxide levels (in both the water and air). One interruption to the ocean currents could have an enormous impact on the climate. Such things triggered many ice ages in the past. An example: the way Atlantic currents travel north from tropical latitudes warms European countries at the same latitudes as very, very cold places in North America.
A Nor’easter gets its name from the northwesterly winds that blow in from the ocean. A Nor'easter develops in response to a sharp contrast in temperature between the warm Gulf stream and the cold air from Canada. When the very cold and dry air rushes down and meets the warm Gulf stream, intense low pressure develops. In the upper atmosphere, the strong winds of the jet stream, remove and replace rising air from the Atlantic more quickly than the Atlantic air is replaced at lower level. This activity and the Coriolis force helps develop a strong storm.
1. An El Nino is an event where warmer waters are pushed to the region of Central America, caused by a shift in the atmospheric pressures that typically occur near the equator. Typically, the winds blow across the Pacific Ocean from East to west, moving from a high to a low-pressure system. These so called “trade winds” have an a effect on the water current that pushes the surface of the oceans to the west, thus creating an upwelling of cold water by Central America (Ahrens, 2014). In an El Nino scenario, the trade winds that typically push west in a strong manner cannot compensate for a strong shift in pressure.
The polar cell is the smallest and weakest cells among the three. It extends from between 60 and 70 degrees north and south of the poles. In these cells air sinks over the highest latitudes and flows out towards the lower latitudes at the surface. High precipitation in the tropics is caused by the warm air from the hemispheres converging in the Inter Convergence Zone(ICZ) and the rise of this air is caused by low pressure and causes convection in the atmosphere. In the tropics, high precipitation occurs as a result of warm prevailing winds being obstructed by mountain ranges, since the mountains force the moisture in those winds to sink on the side of the mountain that is blocking the winds, leaving the other side with low
This is where aerosols come into play; they greatly influence cloud formation. Homogeneous nucleation of water droplets and ice crystals directly from water vapour, without the catalyst of fine aerosol particles, is not possible in the troposphere. Instead, nucleation is largely controlled by heterogeneous nucleation involving the aerosol particles that act as ‘cloud condensation nuclei’ (CCNs) to form liquid cloud droplets, or as ‘ice nucleating particles’ (INP) to form ice particles. Accordingly, aerosol particles strongly affect the properties of clouds, their size, abundance and rate of production, and thus they influence cloud cover, cloud albedo, and cloud
Climate Conditions Fog is like a cloud which is physically in-contact with the earth’s surface. There are many processes of forming fog. In one method, low stratus clouds can form on a cold body of water, for example, the subtropical SE Pacific Ocean, and the resulting cloud base height above the surface and the thickness of the cloud may be a few tens or hundreds of meters. If such a cloud is moved by the regional winds toward the coastal mountains, the travelled fog may occur in the region having mountains. Another way to produce fog is adiabatic cooling of humid air masses when they move to the uphill.
Ocean levels are additionally anticipated that would increment by 0.09 - 0.88 m. in the following century, for the most part from softening icy masses and extending seawater. An Earth-wide temperature boost might likewise influence natural life and species that can't make due in hotter situations might get to be wiped out. At long last, human wellbeing is additionally in question, as worldwide Climate Change might bring about the spreading of specific sicknesses, for example, intestinal sickness, the flooding of real urban communities, a more serious danger of warmth stroke for people, and poor air quality. Environmental change is likely having an effect now on our planet and its life, as indicated by the most recent portion of a report distributed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). What's more, the future issues brought about by rising oceans, developing deserts, and more successive dry spells all
For instance, in geographic gradients of latitude with regards to the equator, the temperatures are stable around the equator which leads to a greater biodiversity whereas areas further away from the equator experience a seasonal variation in temperatures that leads to a lower biodiversity. Elevation, this describes the higher or deeper you go and more specialization occurs due to elevation stratification and therefore less biodiversity can then be found at high altitudes or low depths. Isolation and habitat area are important especially in the concept of island biogeography. Biogeography is an integrative field that unites concepts and information from ecology, evolutionary biology, geology and physical geography. Modern biogeographic research combines information and ideas from the physiological and ecological
It also includes some Pacific Island chain and some islands of Papua New Guinea and New Zealand, Davies (2014). The glaciers need a specific climatic condition, which mostly found at high snowfall region during winter and cool temperature during summer. The snow will accumulated during winter, to prevent the lost of snow during summer, it require a specific climatic condition. To ensure the glaciers to live longer, the amount of precipitation in the form of snowfall, freezing rain, or wind-drifted snow is quite necessary. Glaciers and ice sheets affect and are affected by changes in Earth 's climate.