In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
You may include flowcharts and sketches, if it is helpful. (15 pts) There are three parts of the immune system that consist of the body’s natural barriers, the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response. The skin and mucosal surfaces form barriers against infection. When bacteria enters through a break in the natural barrier of the skin, it is first introduced to antimicrobial peptides under the surface of the skin that is supposed to kill bacteria,
The evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria, is the consequence of the overuse of antibiotics in both humans and animals (Knoppel, A,. et al. 2017). Since the first uses of penicillin, there have been numerous cases of resistance towards the antibiotic penicillin. The bacteria associated with penicillin, has originated from rare and naturally resistant varieties that had prevented the killing of the bacteria and as a result, making the drug ineffective.
SectionІІ: Overview of infection prevention for general clinical practice: According to Tietjen 2008, microorganisms are the causative agents of infection. They include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In the context of infection prevention, bacteria can be further divided into three categories: vegetative (e.g., staphylococcus), mycobacteria (e.g., tuberculosis), and endospores (e.g., tetanus), which are the most difficult to kill. He also added that asepsis or aseptic technique is a general term used to describe the combination of efforts made to prevent entry of microorganisms into any area of the body where they are likely to cause infection. The goal of asepsis is to reduce to a safe level, or eliminate, the number of microorganisms
However pathogens have mechanisms where it can mask its presence, such that the host would not be able to detect, and release antibodies to destroy the invading pathogens. The only way the host can eliminate pathogens, is by releasing antibodies, to form an antigen- antibody complex and finally be removed via phagocytosis. The masking of its presence in the host could be one of the many effects of evolution. As microbes from the past go through different unfavorable conditions over different periods of time, they undergo mutations often and some of these mutations can cause the microbe to have favorable characteristics that allow them to survive in such harsh conditions and pass on these characteristics to its
Our results from the PCR process were very unexpected, even to the point the control colony had some rather odd outcomes. The goal of this experiment was to choose three colonies from the petri dish that has been exposed to +Amp, and look for any signs of the +Amp resistant gene, blaTEM, within the colonies and decide if this gene does have an impact on bacterial resistance towards the antibiotic. My partner and I decided to utilize a bacterial colony sample that does have blaTEM genes as our control group for us to indicate what a blaTEM gel strand would appear in the agarose gel results. When observing the product of the gel product after gel electrophoresis, we were surprised to find out none of our three colonies had any strands that indicated the presence of blaTEM despite each of them surviving through the exposure to this antibiotic.
The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. Although highly controversial when first proposed, the germ theory was validated in the late 19th century and is now a fundamental part of modern medicine and clinical microbiology leading to such important innovations as antibiotics and hygienic practices. According to Louis Pasteur, germs or microbes cause disease and these germs invade the body from the outside through air, water or the food that we take in. The human blood is sterile and can only be infected by outside microbes; these germs are monomorphic, that is, they have only one form and can be identified by species. Thus, specific diseases are caused by specific germs.
They work by utilizing a variety of substances to defend the human body against potentially deadly microorganisms (“Vaccine” 1). Vaccines operate by introducing a weakened version of the virus, or a strand of a protein from the bacteria into the immune system. In turn, this insertion causes the production of antibodies which help to fight the actual infection, by attacking the virus upon its entry into the body (“Vaccine” 1-2). Previously, vaccines revolved around observations that humans will develop an immunity to a disease they are exposed to, given they survive (“Vaccine 1). However, vaccinations are far
Lastly is the evolution of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). MRSA is a bacterium that is responsible for various infections in humans that are difficult to treat due to its development of a resistance to common antibiotics. MRSA is very common in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes. Biological Diversity
Fleming did not plan on revolutionizing medicine, but he did and it made one of the biggest impacts in medicine. Antibiotic, a chemical substance produced by micro-organisms which has the capacity, in dilute solution, to inhibit the growth of or destroy other micro-organisms (A. Porteous, 2008). Antibiotics are used to treat and control infectious diseases in the human body, animals, and even