The drug user continues to use substances and the compulsive behavior despite the harmful consequences, and tries to systematically avoid responsibility and reality, while he or she tends to isolate himself/herself from others because of guilt and pain (Angres, & Bettinardi-Angres, 2008). All these characteristics led to the conclusion that drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use. It is considered as a brain disease because drugs change the structure of the brain, and how it works. Every drug affects different systems of the brain. For example, in the case of cocaine, as the brain is adapted in the presence of the specific drug, brain regions responsible for judgment, decision-making, learning, and memory begin to physically change, making certain behaviors “hard-wired.” In some brain regions, connections between neurons are pruned back.
The effects of addiction on health can be devastating. Once addiction develops, the brain changes interfere with an individual’s ability to make voluntary decisions, leading to compulsive drug craving, seeking and use. 6 Drug abuse can suppress the body’s immune system and is related to risky behaviours, involving the sharing of contaminated syringe, needle or injection paraphernalia and unprotected sex. The combination greatly increases the likelihood of acquiring HIV, hepatitis and many other infectious diseases. 6 Drugs that lead to these diseases are heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine.
The Debate of Choice and Compulsion Normative theories on addiction tend to feed into the debate of compulsion or choice (Henden, Melberg, & Røgeberg, 2013). On one end of the spectrum, addiction can be described as a medical illness illustrated by relapse, recurring drug use, and compulsive behavior in which the addict has no control over. Sellman, (2010), for example, argues that although often lost on healthcare professionals and other medical providers, addiction to drugs and other addictive behaviors (gambling, pornographic websites, internet use, alcohol, etc.) becomes increasingly compulsive as the addiction progresses. Biological evidence has shown to correlate drug use and dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain.
al 117). In addition to affecting the lives of patients, addiction impacts the community’s functionality. Interestingly, frequent use of psychoactive medications by patients of all ages can lead to addiction, but administration of these medications is a valuable technique of treatment for ailments. Medications can provide relief from discomfort that a patient may experience, nevertheless while causing an alteration in
Failure of character, strength and will in the brain is considered due to the addiction of drug or substance abuse. The person who is addicted is not viewed as a simple, helpless victim just because of the addiction of drug and its recognition. Only because of the intentional behavior usage of drugs phenomenon of addiction takes place, and it is the responsibility of addicts to take part in the recovery of their behavior. If the people do not do something for their recovery then the argument about the brain disease because of addiction will be valid. There are some many problems caused by the Substance Abuse, especially at Workplace.
Addiction influenced authors to write with their own individuality and make it easier for them to explain themselves. Authors who suffer with addiction portray their own individuality through the books they write. In fact, those who struggle with addiction “are more likely to have poor interpersonal relationships, live alone, have higher levels of aggression and impulsivity, and have an overall negative outlook on life” (Effects of Alcoholism on Behavior). An example of an author who suffers with addiction is F. Scott Fitzgerald, who was addicted to alcohol. Fitzgerald reflected his own addiction of alcohol to the characters that exist within The Great Gatsby.
Pyromania is also described as a behavioural addiction, so it has many of the same signs and symptoms of substance addictions but it is more difficult to accurately screen (Korpa, & Papadopoulou, 2013). Some clinical signs of addictive behaviours, in general, are: “preoccupation, loss of control, and continuous use despite harmful consequences” (Korpa, & Papadopoulou, 2013). The signs and symptoms of an addictive disorder are tolerance, withdrawal, escalating use, desire and/or unsuccessful efforts to discontinue, time and effort are spent, and significant social or occupational activities are given up. Three or more of these criteria must be met for at least a year in order to be diagnosed with an addictive disorder. Since it is common for pyromania to overlap or coexist with other psychiatric disorders, it is a public health priority to prevent addictive disorders (Korpa, & Papadopoulou, 2013).
Meth is abused as a recreational drug (Rockvill) and is the illicit form of methamphetamine that causes very severe physical and psychological addiction problems. The signs and symptoms of this disorder are numerous and include increased physical activity, paranoia, dilated pupils, elevated heart rate, jaw clenching and depression to name a few (Miller). Some of the more noticeable visual signs include tooth decay, picking at the skin resulting in scabs, and extreme weight
“The symptoms of PTSD are difficult to cope with, and they often lead people to use more unhealthy ways of coping, such as alcohol or drug use” (Tull). This quote from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder expert, Matthew Tull; demonstrates that some symptoms of of PTSD lead to alcohol or drug use. “‘Bring me a Coke.’ He started to go away, but I called him back. ‘Can’tcha stick a little rum in it or something?’ I asked him. I asked him very nicely and all” (Salinger 69).
This example shows how bad his addiction was to the point he believed he wouldn’t be able to write without being drunk. Within these examples, one can notice the control alcohol had over King, quite similar to the control alcohol had on Fitzgerald. In conclusion, authors with addiction use their writing as a way to reveal their addiction, perhaps as a cry for