Microbial Evolution – Staphylococcus aureus Name: Sean Lin Class: E8J Date: May 23th, 2016 Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is a species of bacteria that belongs to Staphylococcus genus, and it is generally found in the nose, respiratory tracks and on skin. Staphylococcus appears as a form like a grape clusters when looking through a microscope, and it has large, golden colonies. Staphylococcus reproduces by binary fission, which it is asexual. [Cashin, 2010] The symptoms on humans that are caused by the infection of Staphylococcus aureus consist a very wide range, from minor skin problems such as boils or abscesses, to life threatening diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis or meningitis. Staphylococcus aureus has been a great concern
Staphylococcus Aureus belongs to the extremely common bacteria of microflora of the skin and mucous membranes of the humans. These pathogens cause many infections, including superficial and deep purulent infections, poisoning, urinary tract infection etc. In the US, staphylococcus bacteria are supposed to be the leading cause of sepsis, postoperative wound and prosthesis infections. In addition, staphylococcus belongs to one of the leading causes of bacterial food poisoning. Staphylococcus Aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogen.
Infectious Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the anaerobic bacterium species that is widely suspected to contribute to the development of acne, but its exact role in this process is not entirely clear. There are specific sub-strains of P. acnes associated with normal skin and others with long-term acne. It is unclear whether these undesirable strains evolve on-site or are acquired, or possibly both depending on the person. These strains either have the capability of changing, perpetuating, or adapting to, the abnormal cycle of inflammation, oil production, and inadequate sloughing of acne
• It may also occur when the joint is directly infected with a microorganism from an injury or during surgery. Joints that are commonly affected are the knee and hip. • Most cases of acute septic arthritis are caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus. • Chronic septic arthritis (which is less common) is caused by organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. • Once the infection reaches a joint, the joint cannot protect itself from the invading bacterium, virus, or fungus.
The absolute most normal causes include: • Inward breath or ingestion of micro-organisms that make bothering the sinuses and influence the invulnerable framework. • Bacterial development in the sinuses because of blockages and bodily fluid development. The cilia of the sinus layers are not ready to work appropriately because of bacterial action, and this causes swelling of the films. • At the point when allergens enter the aviation routes, they can aggravate the sinus films and prompt swelling and irritation. Some normal allergens incorporate dust, and dirt • Viral diseases can influence the cilia and cause an amassing of bodily fluid in the sinus depressions.
aureus) commonly colonises the skin and nose. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a strain of bacteria that has become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staphylococcal infections. In the right setting MRSA can cause severe and at times fatal infections such as bloodstream infection (BSI), infective endocarditis, pneumonia and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). In general S. aureus is sensitive to many first-line antibiotics and infections are generally treated with penicillins and cephalosporins, which act in a similar way against S. aureus. Methicillin was the first of these agents used in clinical practice and by convention the term is used when referring to resistance to these antibiotics.
Infection can occur either from hematogenous seeding of the pathogen from another site in the body or from direct inoculation via traumatic or surgical wound. Acute infection may last for several days or weeks and may require antibiotics, when causative organism persists for more than 10 days and bone destruction is involved, the infection is considered as chronic osteomyelitis. Staphylococcus aureus is the single leading cause of both acute and chronic osteomyelitis in children and adults. Other organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus spp, Enterococcus spp and Mycobacterium tuberculosis may also cause osteomyelitis but S. aureus is most prevalent bacteria found due to virulence factors that help it evade a number of the host
This report will evaluate the threat to public health in Queensland through the possibility of a Lassa or Zika virus outbreak and focusses on the following four criteria - distribution, effect, treatment, and control methods. The Lassa virus originated in West Africa, and is transmitted through household items contaminated with rodent urine or faeces. The mode of transmission is through an infected rodent, commonly known as the Multimammate rat, or Mastomys. Due to the distribution of the Multimammate rat (Refer to Figure 1), the Lassa virus has not affected very many countries since it was first discovered in 1969. The “Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease, meaning that humans become infected from contact with infected animals” (WHO, 2018).
Ok, I will give the name it is most commonly associated with, flesh eating bacteria syndrome. This name is, in fact, an inappropriate name for the infection, since the bacteria does not actually “eat” the tissue, it destroys it by releasing toxins. The bacterias that most commonly causes this disease are group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens. These bacterias come in through the skin and infect surrounding tissue. People who are immunocompromised, such as cancer and diabetes sufferers, have greater risks of getting flesh eating bacteria.
MRSA was also contracted from medical equipment such as catheters which results in urinary tract infections, blood-stream infections caused by central lines as well as pneumonia contracted from ventilators. If these equipment are then used to treat another patient then they will readily be infected. Enterococcus is a natural flora found in the intestinal tract however Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus is the third most common source of HAIs and was spread from the hands of health care works and medical equipment such as electronic rectal thermometer and hospitals beds. Clostridium difficile may cause severe diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis (swelling of the large intestine), toxic megacolon and death. The spores of Clostridium difficile are resistant to alcohol and most hospital disinfectants and are most commonly spread by the a fecal-oral route from the hands of the health care workers (usually after handling rectal thermometers) then to patients or patients environment.