Other theories which underpins authentic assessment is Experiential Learning Theory by David Kolb and Situated Learning Theory which was theorized by Lave and Wenger. Experiential learning occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Concrete experiences provide the information that serves as a basis for reflection. On the other hand, Situated Learning Theory is learning in the same contexts in which concepts and theories are applied. Research has shown that real-life applied activities and problem-solving activities establish a contextual setting for many lessons, providing motivation and encouraging curiosity.
It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens. The function of context is another aspect of my personal lens aligns with the established theory where contextual learning is the key. Using authentic contextual experiences that are decided by learners drive the learning experiences in my kind of classroom. Finally, with regards to the role of facilitators, both views support that educators should provide guidance from reliance to gradually move to independent
• It can happen through activities which is done in group or individually. According to Kingsley and Garry “learning is the process by which behavior is originated or changes through practice or training.” (1957, p.12) learning can also be defined as a “process whereby knowledge, skill and behavior are gained by an individual.” (James 2007) Kolb’s model of learning can be used as a description of learning process with emphasis on TURNING EXPERIENCE INTO LEARNING. The ELT model is highly relevant
Metacognition regulates thinking and learning (Brown 1978; Nelson, 1996). There are three essential skills: planning, monitoring, and evaluating. Metacognition involves choosing the best way to approach a learning task. Students with good metacognitive skills set goals, organize their activities, select among various approaches to learning, and change strategies if needed. Metacognitive practices help students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses as learners, writers, readers,
Bandura’s theory concentrates on how individuals view the behaviour of others and immediately learn and develop new conducts, the Social Learning Theory demonstrates reasons for people imitating those behaviours. The Social Learning Theory explains individual’s imitating behaviours through the process of modeling. There are three core concepts of SLT, first is the idea of individuals learning through observation, second is the individual’s mental state and lastly is the fact that learning does not necessarily mean change in behaviour. Moreover, there are three models under observation which include “a live model that involves an individual demonstrating or acting out a behaviour, a verbal instruction model that has descriptions and explanations of behaviour and symbolic model that
An individual models his or her own behavior on the behaviors of others. This is based on observational learning that requires attention, retention, production, and motivation. Attention is to selectively observe the actions of a model. Attention is influenced by characteristics of the modeled behavior (e.g., complexity), the model (e.g., attractiveness similarity), and the observer (e.g., cognitive capabilities). Retention then stores observed behaviors in memory, to reproduce later.
The rise in popularity of these programs continues to escalate as the physical distance between educators and students (Smith & Berge, 2009). Throughout the years the social learning theory has steadily been recognized as one of the most influential theory of learning and development. It is because of its deep entrenchment in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory. This theory has often called as thelinkbetween behaviorist learning theories and cognitive learning theories for the reason that it encompasses all traditional approaches, e.g. attention, memory, and motivation (Muro& Jeffrey 2008).However, Bandurastrongly considers the factthat not all the time that direct reinforcement couldexplain in detail for all types of learning.
In context of media’s effect on children, this theory plays a vital role in laying the framework for our understanding of this topic. This theory suggests that the human mind is likely to be influenced to learning from daily interaction with others and observation. As mentioned earlier about children’s constant interaction with the virtual world (Social Media) and Television, this exposure leads to children picking up many of their characteristic traits and develop further as they mature. The Negative effects of Television Televisions are a common staple in almost every household. The news and information being provided to varied audiences has increased drastically with the introduction of multiple news outlets and entertainment channels.
Curriculum Development. Curriculum development should be viewed as a process by which meeting learners’ needs leads to improvement of learners’ learning. Therefore, curriculum developers should gather as much information as possible toward the learners’ needs. Those who are affected by the curriculum should be involved in the process of planning and then in the process of implantation and evaluation (Lunenborg and Ornstein, 2012) Reyes and Dizon (2015) and Bilbao, Lucido, Iringan, and Javier (2011) claimed that there are three types of curriculum: 1) The intended curriculum – content specified by the state/ province course or at a particular grade level,district or school, which must be addressed in a particular 2) The implemented curriculum-content
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING The Social Learning Theory, also known as observational learning, involves how a learner changes behaviour and obtains knowledge as a result of watching others within their environment. Albert Bandura (1977) considered observational learning as the process that explains the nature of children learning behaviours by watching the behaviour of the people in their environment, and ultimately, imitating them. Observational learning will be applied to demonstrate how in the phonics activity, students act as observers, and the teacher as the model, where imitation of actions create a learning process resulting in the students being able to independently trace the ‘h’ letter shape, ultimately learning through observation.