The principal objective of this study was to understand how cell membranes are able to store pigments in their intracellular compartments which then prevents the pigments from entering the general cytoplasm using different concentrations of a solution which in this case was detergent (Huber, et al., 2018).Several slices of Beetroot were immersed in water and three different concentrations of Tween 20.It was then hypothesized that Higher concentrations of Tween 20 will increase the cell membrane permeability of Beetroot. The results were not consistent with the hypothesis and it was shown that with different concentrations of the detergent (Tween 20), the cell membrane permeability increased in the control and then followed the hypothesis pattern in the other concentration of the
Like measuring off by a slight amount or leaving behind some of the substance if transferring it over to another flask or beaker. A person could not do something so perfectly because humans always do errors while doing things, it would be very unlikely for a chemists to get a 100% yield after for a chemical reaction. 6. The percentage yield was not 100%. Some factors that could have affected the experiments end result could have been through measuring the all the reactants and equipment their might have been an error somewhere there.
One error that could have affected the percent yield is not filtering out all of the liquid from the filter paper in the funnel before setting it off to dry. This would have increased the final mass of the solid, not making it accurate. To stop this from happening again, the liquid could be drained more thoroughly until it fully stops dripping into the Erlenmeyer flask. Another error that could have affected the percent yield is the amount of trials performed. This would have made the results less accurate and made any errors change the final results even more.
To increase the size of DNA fragments used in transgenesis, scientists are cloning them in yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs). This has increased the use of transgenic mice as disease model. Single Gene Knock-Outs and Knock-Ins These are models to target a mutation to a specific gene locus and are particularly useful if a single gene is shown to be the primary cause of a disease. Knock-out mice carry a gene that has been inactivated while knock-out mice are produced by inserting a transgene at the exact location where it is overexpressed. Many knock-out and knock-in mice have similar, if not identical phenotype to human patients and are therefore good models for human
Some research has indicated that a lack of catalase can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. It seems that some other molecules within living organisms are able to sufficiently break down hydrogen peroxide—enough to sustain life. The toxic nature of hydrogen peroxide also makes it a powerful disinfectant. And in conclusion from the information ive found ,catalase functions best at around 37 degrees Celsius as the temperature gets colder or hotter than that, the ability to work will denature and the enzyme will be
Another weakness would be that they used tap water as their solute. Tap water can contain other substances, therefore might affect the electrical conductivity. However, it probably did not have that much of an effect because they kept the solvent (tap water) controlled throughout the experiment. They did not use tap water for some trials and distilled water for other trials. Something I found difficult in carrying out the method was to make sure that the amount of substance is exactly 10g (or 30g or 60g).
Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity Exploration: Introduction: Catalase is an enzyme normally found in many plant and animal tissues. Its purpose is to destroy toxic substances like hydrogen peroxide which is a byproduct in many cellular reactions. In this lab, we will use a catalase solution from yeast and determine the effect of substrate concentration on the action of this enzyme. The substrate of the enzyme will be different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Catalase works by the following mechanism : 2 H2O2 ------------------> 2 H2O+ O2 Hypothesis: The hypothesis for this experiment is that the foam of O2 produced from the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and catalase will increase in height when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increases.
These conditions may denature the enzyme, decreasing its rate of reaction. A conformational change to the activity site of an enzyme will cause the activity of the enzyme to decline significantly. This is because substrate a change in the conformational of the active site of an enzyme prevents the substrate from binding to the enzyme. Sodium chloride affects the charged interactions interactions between the amino acids of the enzyme, deteriorating the active site of the enzyme. However, the enzyme will only deteriorate if there is a high concentration of sodium chloride and not if S3odium chloride is simply present.
Down-regulation happens when the receptors are stimulated repeatedly which causes the receptor to be broken down. This results in the drug being less effective because there are fewer receptors available for it to act on. Drug resistance may also be due to the high amount of drug resistant strains of microorganisms. These strains arise naturally and can multiply very quickly and can become the currently predominant strain of that microorganism, for example antimalarial drug are less effective now because of an increase in the amount of drug resistant strains of the malaria
To transfer genes, scientists use yeast cells instead of bacteria because yeast cells are eukaryotic and they can translate genes from other eukaryotes. To transfer DNA, a vector is used in genetic engineering is a carrier. Bacteria contain vectors called plasmids, which are small circular pieces of DNA within the bacteria. An example in medicine would be diabetes. Before genetic engineering was common, doctor’s cures diabetes with animal insulin obtained from farm animals, but that used to cause allergic reactions in some patients.
Temperature is yet a further error to account for as the microscope slide temperature was constantly changing to view the specimen, and change the dosage of caffeine or alcohol. The temperature of the solutions could also have played a factor in the Daphnia Heart rate as ideal conditions for Daphnia is 68 degrees Fahrenheit and the temperature of the solutions was not measured for.
The lysosome then cannot break down sugars and slows the digestive system. These sugars are found in muscle cells which makes the overall muscle weaker when the cells are affected by the lack of AGG. The malfunction of this organelle may cause many issues for the other organelles in the cell. The lysosome becomes overpacked when the excess of glycogen builds up. The bloating of the lysosome may end up in its rupture which would severely damage the other organelle and ruin their functions.
Similar processes are used in other cells to maintain the large surface areas they need to function, such as cells in the gut and lungs. This research relates to biology as it studies the changes in cells required to maintain homeostasis, a state of internal regulation required by all living organisms. This information is not only relevant to biology, but also to the general community as it could be used to better understand and treat macular degeneration, a disease in which vision and light sensitivity is gradually lost. 3.
Too much insulin can cause hypoglycemia because the liver produces less glucose and the cells of the body absorb more glucose. Too much glucagon results in too much glucose in the bloodstream because it is not absorbed by the cells and can result in high blood sugar. Not enough insulin causes a rise in the blood glucose level because the glucose remains in the bloodstream. Not enough glucagon results in dangerously low blood glucose levels
- Little to no oxygen will result in the E. coli cells producing large quantities of acetic acid, causing the growth medium to reach pH 4 or lower however, with proper aeration the cells will be able to use many organic acids as carbon sources and the pH of the growth medium will be maintained at neutral or basic ranges. Aeration is another important factor in determining E. coli cell growth however it can continue to grow in the absence of oxygen using fermentation and anaerobic respiration. - Optimal growth temperature is 37C, cannot grow well at temperatures higher than 42C and they can tolerate lower temperatures with lower growth rate. - The doubling time or generation time for most E. coli strain in a rich medium at 37C is 20 minutes. - E. coli requires environmental sources of all of the nutrients (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, as well as iron, selenium, calcium, sodium and several others) in order to survive.